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The Latvia SIG is extremely pleased that Aleksandrs Feigmanis has given us permission to include the text of his important book, Latvian Jewish Intelligentsia, Victims of the Holocaust, on our web site. The complete book with photographs will be distributed free of cost in the schools and universities of Latvia. Aleks tells us that the complete is book is available from him for $70 (USD). Please contact him at: aleksgen@balticgen.com if you are interested in purchasing the book.

LATVIAN JEWISH INTELLIGENTSIA

VICTIMS OF THE HOLOCAUST

By

Aleksandrs Feigmanis

 

Preface

 

This book presents the brief biographies of 77 Latvian Jews who were killed by the Nazis just for being Jews. They were teachers and pupils at gymnasiums, students and professors, architects and doctors, musicians and artists, entrepreneurs and public figures, rabbis, writers and journalists. Among them are those who fought for Latvian independence during the Liberation Fight in 1918-1920 and who restored the Latvian national economy, which was devastated during World War I. They were the pride of Latvian science, education, health services, and culture. They worked honestly and raised their children with integrity. From 1941 to 1945 they were killed in the streets of Riga, Liepaja, and Daugavpils, shot at the edge of common graves at Bikernieku wood, Rumbula, and the Shkede dunes, and murdered in the concentration camps of Kaiserwald, Stuthoff, Buchenwald, and Auschwitz.

 

This book honors these few special people. It is dedicated to the tens of thousands of other victims of the Nazi terror in Latviato children and the elderly, to men and women. It is said that a person is alive as long as his or her memory is alive. It is also said that a forgotten crime may reoccur. Through the memory of these special people, let us remember and let us insure that the Holocaust tragedy does not ever take place again with any nation anywhere.

 

The author sincerely thanks the management and employees of a reading hall at the Latvian State History Archives for their help in finding relevant documents. Thanks also to Professor Edward Anders, Marger Westerman, Mark Ioffe, and to Boris Ravdin, PhD, for valuable advice and information.

 

The publication of the book is made possible through the kind support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France and the French Cultural Centre in Riga, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia and Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research.

 

To send your feedback and comments about the book, please, use the following email: levtov@inbox.lv

 

 

Abram ABRAMIS

(1871 in Gorodok, Vitebsk Province, 1941 in Riga)

 

A cantor. Abram Abramis, a cantor (a singer at a public worship in synagogue), took singing lessons from Professor Alberto Toma in Italy and then continued his education in Vienna. His voice was professionally traineda lyrico-dramatic tenor of beautiful timbre. Abram sang in the synagogue in Peitavas Street in Riga from 1912 until his death in 1941. He also directed a male choir of the synagogue.

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Sava krāsa varavīksnē. R., 1997. 45. lpp.

 

Katya ABRAMIS

 (1906 in Riga, 1941 in Riga, Rumbula)

 

A pianist. Abram Abramis's (see above) daughter was a pianist. From childhood she took piano lessons from her teacher Ella Markushevich. In the 1920s Katya left Riga for Paris, where she was Professor Philipp's student; later she graduated from the Russian Conservatory in Paris, having studied with Professor Y.Konis. On return to Riga, she gave private music classes. Once every year Katya gave a concert, performing musical compositions by Bach, Mozart, Debussy, Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert, Vitols and Medins. Chopin's works, such as "Lullaby" and Prelude in C m," were especially dear to her. Critics were unanimously delighted with this performer's talent, taste, and exquisite technique.

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Sava krāsa varavīksnē. R., 1997. 45. lpp.

Poruks K. Pianiste Katja Abrāmisa // Jaunākas ziņas. 1936. Nr. 58. 7. lpp.

Юревич В. Концерт К. Абрамис // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 58. С. 6.

 

Tatjana BARBAKOFF (stage name)

Given name: Tsipora Edelberg

(1.8. 1899, Hasenpoth, Kurland Province (Aizpute), 6.02.1944 Auschwitz concentration camp)

 

Character dancer and pantomime actress. Born into the family of Aizick Edelberg, a butcher from Aizpute, and his wife Genya, Tatjana left in 1918 for Germany with a German officer George Waldman, who later took the stage name of Marcel Boisier and became famous as a singer, composer, master of ceremonies, and dancer. Tatjana did not have a formal education in choreography; however, she was very talented at performing character Chinese and Russian dances in cabarets and variety shows in Dusseldorf, Berlin and Frankfurt. Being a charming beauty, she was a muse for artists from the group called "Young Rheinland" Christian Rolf, Otto Pancock, Yupp Rubzamm, Menne Hundt, Gerdt Volheimall portrayed her in their canvases. After Hitler came to power in 1933, Tatjana retreated to France, where she danced on the stage of the theatre "Academy" founded by choreographer Raymond Duncan. At the beginning of World War II Tatjana as a citizen of a hostile state was interned to the camp Gurs and then released in January 1940. She fled from the attacking German troops to Nizza, where she was arrested in January 1944 and imprisoned in the concentration camp Drancy. In February 1944 Tatjana was deported to the concentration camp Auschwitz, where she was killed in a gas chamber. Tatjana's lightness, elegance, readiness to help everybody around her remained in the memory of all people who knew her. In 1986 in Paris her ex-colleague Julia Tardi-Markus instituted Tatjana Barbakoff's Prize" to encourage young talented dancers. Part of an exposition in the Dsseldorf city museum is devoted to Tatjana Barbakoff, displaying her paybills, photos, and stage costumes.

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Goebbels G. Tatjana Barbakoff. Dsseldorf, 1991. 31 S.

 

 

 

Zhan BERGMAN

 (30.01. 1894 in Riga- 02.08.1944, Riga)

 

An educator. Zhan Bergman was an educational specialist, a headmaster of Riga Jewish public gymnasium. In 1912 he graduated from Riga City Classical Gymnasium, moving on to Riga Polytechnic Institute. From 1912 to 1914 Zhan was a student in the department of chemistry; from 1914 to 1918 he joined the department of economics as a candidate of commercial science. From 1918 to 1920 he worked as a member of the editorial staff of the newspaper Economic Life in Moscow. Adhering to democratic views, Zhan was close to the party of Constitutional Democrats. He had a good command of 12 languages and from 1920 taught Latin and economic geography in Riga City Jewish Gymnasium, the gymnasium "Ivrit", and  Rauhverger's gymnasium. Zhan also lectured on Jewish educational courses and Jewish agricultural courses. He was the head of summer courses for teachers in Riga. Zhan was a member of the National Democratic Party, the main goal of which was development of education among the Jews. In 1941 he was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto along with his wife Clara and children Mikhail (born in 1921), Alexander (born in 1925) and Daniel (born in 1928). Then Zhan was transferred to "Balastdamm," a branch of the Kaiserwald concentration camp. On August 2, 1944 he was sent to be shot in Rumbula, along with nearly all other prisoners. His wife Clara and son Daniel were shot in Rumbula on December 8, 1941. His sons Mikhail and Alexander survived the ghetto and Nazi concentration camps. Alexander Bergman is now a well-known Riga lawyer and heads the Latvian Society of the Jewsformer prisoners of ghetto and concentration camps. He has also written his memoirs.

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Бергман А. Записки недочеловека. Рига, 2005. С. 142161.

 

Beines BERMAN

(29.12.1896- 1941, Riga)

 

An educator. Beines Berman was an education specialist. From July 1919 to October 1920 he was in the army, a lieutenant of Cesis infantry regiment. He took part in fights with Bolsheviks and was thanked by the commander of the regiment for a successful reconnaissance sortie the night of January 12-13, 1920. After the war Beines taught chemistry in the Jewish gymnasium "Ezra" in Riga.

 

Mikhail  BRAVIN

(?-1941, Riga)

 

An entertainer. Mikhail was a master of ceremonies, singer, and actor. He was the chairman of the society of variety show actors. He started his stage activities in 1909 in Perm, joining the company of M.T. Sroeyv's Drama Theatre. Possessing a remarkable vocal talent, Mikhail began taking singing classes and was admitted to Giuseppe Gonzales's Italian opera, which toured Russian towns. After two and a half years he settled in Odessa, where he performed in films and variety shows as a comic actor and singer. In 1915 Mikhail took up his residence in Moscow and sang in the best Moscow variety shows, such as "Hermitage," "Aquarium," and "Yar."  In November 1918 he arrived in Latvia. Beginning in 1920 he spent his evenings on the stage of the Russian Drama Theatre and after that in the first cabaret in Riga, at the corner of Dzirnavu and Brivibas Street. In 1922 on his initiative the first theatre of miniatures (short screenplays) was opened in Riga. Mikhail liked touring to Latvian towns. For a number of years he was the chairman of the Russian Theatre Society in Riga.

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Михаил Бравин 25 лет на сцене в разных амплуа // Сегодня вечером. 1934. № 276. С. 4.

В субботу вечер Михаила Бравина // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 65. С. 6.

 

 

 

 

Mikhail Zwick

(4.07.1893, Libau, Kurland province (Liepaja) - 07.1941, Liepaja)

 

A writer, journalist, and playwright. Mikhail received his literary education in St. Petersburg. On February 25, 1918 he was admitted to the Society of Russian Playwrights and Composers in Moscow. On September 7, 1919 Mikhail volunteered for the Latvian army and served until January 15, 1921. He took part in the battles against Bermont- Avalov's troops near a bridge across the Daugava. In October 1919 he was injured. Mikhail was a member of the Society of Jewish Liberators of Latvia. He wrote for the magazine Dlya vas, for newspapers Segonya and Novosti, and was a frequent contributor of satire (in verse) to the newspaper Russkij Kurjer. For a few years Mikhail lived in Germany where his popular novels were published. After Hitler came to power, Mikhail returned to Liepaja. In the 1920s and 30s he published 32 more novels, 24 of which were written in German, 4 in Latvian, and 4 in Russian. During 20 years of creative literary work Mikhail also published 500 stories, 200 fairy tales for women (some of them published in French magazines) and many verses. His plays (written under the penname of Mikhail Mironov) were staged in St. Petersburg, Nizhnij Novgorod, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Kharbine, Riga and Liepaja. He was compared with Edgar Walles, a famous English author of detective stories, for the ability to tie the knot of a romantic plot skillfully and to keep readers in suspense until the last page.

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Cviks M. Apburošais dēkainis. R., 1937. 144 lpp.

Cviks M. Bezbailīgie. R., 1938. 175 lpp.

Cviks M. Laimes pēdās. R., 1937. 112 lpp.

Cviks M. Zem Parīzes debesīm. R., 1937. 120 lpp.

Цвик М. Бесстрашные. Рига, 1938. 110 с.

Цвик М. В поисках счастья. Рига, 1937. 120 с.

Цвик М. Очаровательный проходимец. Рига, 1938. 160 с.

Цвик М. Под небом Парижа. Рига, 1937. 118 с.

 

Mieczyslaw Centnerszwer

(5.07.1874, Warsaw - 27.03.1944, Warsaw)

 

A physicist and chemist, a professor at the Riga Polytechnic Institute, the University of Latvia, and the University of Warsaw, Mieczyslaw came from a well-educated family. His grandfather, Yakov Centnerszwer(1798-1880) was an outstanding mathematician and educational specialist, and his father Gabriel (1841- 1917) was a bookseller and Polish-Jewish writer. Mieczyslaw graduated from the gymnasium in Warsaw and from 1891 to 1898 studied chemistry at the University of Leipzig, earning his PhD. In 1898 he was invited to Riga by Professor Paul Valden as a lecturer in chemistry and electrochemistry at Riga Polytechnic Institute. He also taught encyclopedic physics, beginning in 1904, and physical chemistry. In 1919 Mieczyslaw was elected professor of chemistry at the University of Latvia. He was a world class scientist, author of many scientific works in Polish ("The Theory of Ion", in Russian ("Essay on the History of Chemistry"), in German (Radium and Radioactivity"), in Latvian and Russian (" Lectures on Inorganic Chemistry"). His work Practical Introduction to Physical Chemistry was published in Russian, French, Polish and Spanish. The thesis for his doctor's degree was devoted to the catalytic effects of oxidizing phosphorus. All in all, Mieczyslaw authored or coauthored 106 scientific publications, most in the field of chemical kinetics, corrosion, metals and electrolysis. Mieczyslaw took up civic activities, becoming the chairman of the non-party Jewish union "Akhdut."  In 1928 he left Riga for Warsaw, where he accepted the chair of physical chemistry. Leaving after many years of teaching, M. Centnerszwer was given the degree of an honorary Doctor of Chemistry by the University of Latvia. In 1928 he was awarded the title of Cavalier of the French Academy of Science (Officier d'Academie Francaise). In 1929 Mieczyslaw was awarded with the Order of Three Stars. World War II interrupted the scientist's research work; he was imprisoned in the Warsaw ghetto, escaped from there to a suburb of Warsaw to his wife, who was a Baltic German. In 1944 Mieczyslaw was found there and shot.

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Centneršvers M. Krustiņsons J. Neorganiskās ķīmijas kurss. R., 19221924. 1.sej. 400 lpp.; 2. sej. 485 lpp.

Центнершвер М. Критическая температура растворов. СПб., 1903.

Центнершвер М. Очерки по истории химии: Популярно-научные лекции. Одесса, 1912. 318 с.

Центнершвер М. Практикум по химии. Рига, 1922. 121 с.

Центнершвер М. Практическое введение в физическую химию и электрохимию. Рига, 1922. 190 с.

Центнершвер М. Химическое сродство и его значение для техники. Пг., 1914.

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Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 24.

 

Frida Chernyak

( 12.02.1897, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

Physician. In 1914 Frida graduated from Lomonosov's Gymnasium in Riga. From 1916 to 1920 she studied at Petrograd's State Institute of Medical Sciences. After graduating in 1924 from the University of Latvia, Frida worked as a pediatrician in Riga. In 1925 at the first congress of Latvian doctors she presented reports on "Discussion on Doctor Brekoff's Report" and "Active Immunization Against Diphtheria."

 

Semyon Dubnov

(1860, Mstislavl, Mogilev province - 08.12.1941, Riga)

 

Historian, publicist, and public figure. Semyon was one of the most outstanding researchers of the Jewish people's past. From 1880 to 1906 he lived in St. Petersburg, Odessa, and Vilnya. In the 1880s he studied the history of the Jewish sectarian movementsFrankism and Sabbatianism. Then he published works on the origin of Hasidism and the history of the Jews in Poland and Russia. In 1900-1901 Semyon published the Textbook of Jewish History in three volumes. During this time he was also teaching history in the department of oriental studies in St. Petersburg. He was one of the founders and leaders of the Jewish Historical and Ethnographic Society in 1908 and became the chairman of the Jewish Literary Society. From 1908 to 1918 Semyon Dubnov was the editor of the magazine Yevreiskaya Starina. He strove for setting up Jewish national schools. After the Kishinev Pogrom (1903) Semyon Dubnov worked toward the establishment of self-defense. He also participated in politics. In 1905 he founded a Jewish section of the National Democratic Party and was a member of "The Union of Achieving Equality for the Jews in Russia." Later Dubnov stepped aside from the NDP and in 1906 founded the Jewish National Party. After 1922 he lived in Kaunas and Berlin. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Semyon moved to Riga, living in Mezhapark, at 76 Mezha Avenue. Here he wrote and published World History of the Jewish People in ten volumes, covering the period from the first mention of the Jews until 1938. After Hitler's troops occupied Riga, Semyon was arrested and sent to a ghetto in September 1941.  In December 1941 he was among the column of prisoners heading toward death in Rumbula.

 

For Dubnov the history of the Jewish people represented the history of the Jewish national spirit. In his early works he is a cosmopolitan, denying any national unity of the Jewish people but admitting their religious unity. However, by the 1890s a sense of nationalism replaced his former cosmopolitanism. According to Dubnov, in spite of the fact that the Jewish lost their territory, state and language, they recognized themselves to be a nation on the basis of their original evolution; they represented a type of cultural and historical or a spiritual nation. Dubnov was in favor of an autonomy that is public, national, and cultural, an autonomy of the Jews that rejected assimilation and political Zionism (though he sympathized with spiritual Zionism).

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Dubnovs S. Žīdu vēsture. R., 1935. 1.2. sēj.

Дубнов С. М. История евреев в Европе: В 4 т. Рига, 19361937.

Дубнов С. М. История еврейского народа на Востоке: В 3 т. Рига, 1939.

Дубнов С. М. Книга жизни: Воспоминания и размышления: Материалы для истории моего времени. Т. 13. Рига, 19341935, 1940.

Дубнов С. М. Письма о старом и новом еврействе. СПб, 1907.

Дубнов С. М. Новейшая история еврейского народа. В 3 т. Рига, 19371938.

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Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 14.

 

Mikhail Elyashov

(21.04.1900, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

 

A barrister. Mikhail graduated from gymnasium at the Institute of History and Philology in St. Petersburg in 1917. In 1918 he became a student of history and philology at the Universities of St. Petersburg and Derpt. From July 3, 1920 to October 7, 1921 he served at the Latvian army, in 12 Bauska infantry regiment; he fought the Bolsheviks in Latgale. He graduated law school at Heidelberg University in 1927 with the degree of a Doctor of Law. Mikhail passed an exam at the faculty of law at the University of Latvia in 1926. From 1918 to 1940 he cooperated with the magazine Nov in Petrograd and the newspapers Rigasche Rundschau (" Riga Review") and Rizhskoe Slovo in Riga. He was a cofounder of and contributor to the newspaper Segodnya. In 1927 Mikhail was a founder of the tennis club "Riteck" and became a member of its board of directors.  In 1928 he was the chairman of the Union of the Jews who participated in the War of Liberation. In 1930 Mikhail became secretary of the commission of barristers who developed a new Latvian criminal code. In 1932 he was a secretary of the first congress of Latvian lawyers. Mikhail founded "The Society of Culture-lovers." In an article published in 1933 he called for defending the Latvian democratic state system and "fighting against nationalistic reaction and communist imperialism which threaten the Latvian state to the greatest extent." After the start of the Nazi occupation Mikhail was appointed the chairman of "Judenrat" (the Jewish council) of the Riga ghetto.

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Eljaschew M. Gesetz und Wirtschaft: Veraenderung im Privatrecht // Neues Tageblatt. 1925. Nr. 185.

Eljašovs M. Mūsu kopejais pienākums // Atbrīvotājs: Židu tautības Latvijas atbrīvotaju biedrības almanahs. 1933. 16. 17. lpp.

Эльяшов М. Президент Латвии // Сегодня. 1925. № 250. С. 1.

Эльяшов М. Франко-германская Антанта // Сегодня. 1926. № 213. С. 3

 

Yakov Jewelsohn

(1902, Priekuln, Kurland province ( Priekule) - 1942, Riga)

 

A lawyer. Yakov spent his childhood in Riga, and up to the age of 12 he received a traditional Jewish education, studying the Talmud, Jewish history and literature. When Yakov was 13, his father died and the boy had to combine his studies with earnings to provide for himself and his family. Yakov graduated from Lomonosov gymnasium in Riga. From 1921 to 1927 he was a student of law at the University of Latvia and received his doctorate. Yakov worked as an assistant to a barrister, later as a barrister himself in Riga. He was the founder of and a Philistine of the "Hasmoneya," a brotherhood of students. In the autumn of 1942 Yakov made an attempt to escape from the Riga ghetto to Sweden, together with a group of prisoners. He was arrested by the Nazi police of security and killed.

 

Rafael Feldhun

(1889, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

Entrepreneur and patron of the arts. After World War II, Rafael restored production at a textile factory in Zasulauks, where about a thousand workers were employed producing 3 million meters of cloth a year. Rafael was the head of the board of directors of the largest textile enterprise in Latvia, the "Latvian -British Trade and Industry Joint-Stock Society". He supported cultural and public organizations and charities and was one of the most famous philanthropists in Latvia.

 

Rachel Fridman

(7.12.1887, Riga - 07.1941, Riga)

 

Surgeon. Rachel graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1913 and continued her studies at the University of Bonn. From 1920 to 1940 she was an orthopedic surgeon in Riga. In 1928 Rachel became a member of the Latvian Female Academic Society and remained active until her death. At the beginning of the Nazi occupation she, her husband Hilel Fridman, and their two sons committed suicide.

 

 

Israel Fuks

(17.03.1911, Bolshovtsi, Austria-Hungary (Ivano-Frankovsk region, Ukraine) -

-1.06.1942, Braslav, Vitebsk region)

 

A rabbi, PhD. Israel Fuks graduated from a secondary school in Vienna and from rabbi seminaries in Vienna and Sosnovets (Poland). He was a student of the famous rabbi Joseph Rozin (Rogachever gaon) in Daugavpils and many other prominent rabbis at Vilno, Vienna, Sosnovets and other towns in Poland. After the decease of Rogachever gaon in 1936 Israel Fuks was elected the spiritual leader of Hassids in Daugavpils. At the beginning of the Nazi occupation he was put in prison, later imprisoned in the Daugavpils ghetto. After the start of bloody actions in Daugavpils in the autumn of 1941, religious Jews helped him move to Braslav. Israel Fuks was killed during mass annihilation of prisoners at the local ghetto in Braslav.

 

Gvido Gerber

(24.11.1924, Riga - 1941, Riga)

An artist. Gvido Gerber had a remarkable talent which was revealed in his early childhood: his paintings made at the age of 9 were published in the Riga edition of the newspaper Europa-Ost in 1934. From 1935 to 1940 he studied at a Jewish Basic School and the gymnasium "Ezra". In 1939 being a gymnasium student he was enrolled in the Latvian Academy of Arts.

 

Arij Girnun

(16.01.1896, Kupishki, Kovno province (Kupishkis, Lithuania) - 1941, Riga)

 

An artist. Arij Girnun finished six classes at the gymnasium, then graduated from Blume's arts school. From 1921 to 1930 he studied at the Latvian Academy of Arts and worked at Professor Tilberg's figure painting workshop. Arij Girnun painted portraits of Daugavpils rabbi Joseph Rozin (Rogachever gaon) and rabbi Chaim Brisker as well as scenes from daily Jewish life and landscapes in Jurmala and Baldone. Sunlit beaches and quiet woods were especially appealing to him.

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Ausstellung juedischer Kunstler in Riga // Rigasche Judische Rundschau. 1930. 5. Apr.

 

Hirsh Gitelson, doctor

(28.12.1895, Riga -1941, Riga)

 

Hirsh Gitelson studied in Riga at F.Herman's non-classical secondary school. In 1921 after graduating from St. Petersburg Institute of Medicine, he continued his studies at the University of Latvia. Hirsh Gitelson received his Doctors degree in 1923 and worked at a sanatorium for tuberculosis patients in Priedaine.  He was in charge of the Jewish Society of Health Protection. He died of starvation in a ghetto.

 

Herman (Chaim) Goldring, doctor

(12.02.1893, Vitebsk - 1941, Riga)

 

In 1916 Herman Goldring graduated from the University of Kazan. From 1920 to 1941 he worked as a general practitioner in Cesis, Vilani and Riga.

 

 

 

 

 

Max (Mendel) Goldring, doctor and surgeon

(12.02.1896, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

In 1914 Max Goldring graduated from Riga Alexandrov gymnasium. He entered the University of Kazan and in January 1919 graduated from the school of law. In December of that same year he graduated from the school of medicine. Max Goldring returned to Riga in 1920, and in 1921 he passed an exam at the school of medicine at the University of Latvia. Max worked as a surgeon in Rucava, in Riga City First Hospital, and in the Jewish hospitals "Linat-Gatsedeck" and "Bikur-Holim."  From 1925 to 1930 he was an assistant surgeon at Professor Vladimir Mints's. In 1927 Max worked at surgical clinics in Berlin at Professors Borhardtt's and Rozenstein's. From 1929 on he also devoted himself to a private surgical practice and was a participating doctor in a number of hospital mutual insurance programs. From 1937 to 1940 Max Goldring was a leading doctor at L.Peterson's clinic.

 

Yakov Hoff, entrepreneur and art patron

(30.10.1891, (Fellin, Livonia province (Viljandi, Estonia 07.1941, Riga)

 

From his youth Yakov Hoff took to entrepreneurship and philanthropy. He owned and managed the largest flax mill in Latvia, L & Y. Hoff 's Company of Linen Manufacture in Jelgava.  Yakov was the chairman of the Latvian Society of Trade and Industry. He was a famous patron of art and a philanthropist. He supported activities of a society of low price diners, of Jewish gymnasiums, and of newspapers publishing in Yiddish, like Dos Folk ("People"). Yakov Hoff was arrested in Mezhapark in July 1941 and killed.

 

Ruven Gurevich, pediatrician and internist

(1881, Harkov - 28.07.1944, Riga)

 

Pediatrician and internist. Ruven Gurevich graduated from the University of Harkov in 1907. Until 1940 he was a pediatrician and internist in Daugavpils and managed a clinic there. In July 1941 Ruven was imprisoned in the Daugavpils ghetto. On August 3, 1941 the Nazis included him in a group of ghetto prisoners who were sent to be shot in the woods on the outskirts of Daugavpils. On the way Nazi guard recognized the doctor who once had cured his son of a dangerous disease and made up his mind to save him. Carping at the doctor as he marched in the column, the guard continued to carry out the pretense of harassing the doctor. When the marchers and other guards were some distance away, the guard helped Ruven to escape unseen. Ruven witnessed the horror of bloody action and later recalled that some Jews "fought as lions, shielding their wives and children. I saw how dozens of deceived Jews, even injured, bleeding to death, attacked the murderers with bare hands and stones.  Ruven found himself at his rescuers farm. From there he was helped to get to Riga for he considered a mass attack in a city to be impossible. Ruven became a prisoner of the Riga ghetto and later the concentration camp Kaiserwald, where during a bloody action he committed suicide by taking poison.

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Якуб З.И. В те дни: Из истории Даугавпилсского гетто // Евреи в Даугавпилсе: Исторические очерки. Даугавпилс, 1993. С. 310311.

 

Alexander Gurvich

(21.03.1911, Riga - 14.04.1942, Riga)

 

A pianist. Alexander Gurvich was the son of an outstanding violinist and teacher, Yakov Gurvich (see below), who also died in a ghetto. In 1934 Alexander graduated from Latvian Conservatory, Professor P.Shubert's class. He continued to study in Austria and was one of the best students of the famous Viennese virtuoso Emil von Sauer. When Alexander returned to Riga, he gave concerts of musical compositions by Brahms, Schumann, and Bach. The pianist mastered all of Beethoven's sonatas.

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Breģe I. Cittautu mūziķi Latvijā, 14011939. R., 2001. 64. lpp.

 

 

Yakov Gurvich

(1881 -1943, Riga)

 

A violinist. Yakov was the father of pianist Alexander Gurvich (see above). Yakov studied in Berlin and Leipzig in classes of instructors Joachim and Hilf. Beginning in 1925 he taught at Riga music school and the Jewish National Conservatory. Yakov Gurvich died in the Riga ghetto.

 

 

Walter Hahn

(1911, Vienna -29.06.1941, Liepaja)

 

A conductor and composer. Walter Hahn was a student of the famous conductor Leo Blech (1871-1958), the chief conductor at Berlin opera until 1937 when the Nazis dismissed him from work for his Jewish origin. Leo Blech came to Riga and worked as the chief conductor at the Latvian national opera. Walter Hahn followed Leo Blech and arrived in Latvia in 1938. He was a musical director at the Jewish theatre in Riga. From 1940 Walter Hahn worked as the chief conductor at Liepaja music theatre. He staged the ballet based on Andersen's play "The Little Match Girl." Walter Hahn was killed on the day when German troops marched into Liepaja.

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Vestermanis M., Tā rīkojās vērmahts. Vācu militāristu loma nacistisko okupantu noziegumos Latvijā 1941-1945. R., 1973, 47,48 lpp.

 

Herman Idelson

( 14.03.1869, Riga - 1944, concentration camp Stuthoff, Poland)

 

A doctor and psychiatrist. Herman Idelson was a son of a merchant. In 1879-1888 he studied at Riga City gymnasium and from 1888 to 1895 at the University of Derpt ( Yurjev, now Tartu). In 1896 Herman had an internship at a clinic in Heidelberg. In 1897-1898 he continued his education in Berlin, where got his PhD. From 1901 to 1941 Herman worked as a psychiatrist in Riga; in the summer he worked as a doctor in Kemeri. In 1903-1904 he had a practice in Paris. In 1928 he was awarded with the Three Star Order.

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Idelsohn H. Ein Beitrag zur Pathologie und Histologie des tabischen Fusses // Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Nervenheilkunde. 1904. Bd. 27.

Idelsons H. Kam ieteicams ārstēties Ķemeros un kam ne? // Nakotnes Spēks. 1934. Nr. 3.

Idelsons H. Ko sniedz Ķemeri bez sēra un dūņu vannām // Ķemeru Ziņas. 1934. Nr. 10.

Idelsohn H. Lesions musculaires dans la maladie de Parkinson // Revue neurologique. 14 avril 1904.

Idelsohn H. Ueber das Blut und dessen bacterecides Verhalten gegen Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus bei progressiver Paralysie // Arch. f. Psychiatrie. Bd. 31, Heft 3 .  год и место издания

Idelsohn H. Ueber postluetische conjugale Nervenkrankheiten // Petersburger medezinische Wochenschrift. 1901. Nr. 43.

Идельсон Г. Кровь и ее влияние на золотистый гроздекок при прогрессивном параличе. Юрьев, 1898. (Дис.).

Идельсон Г. Современное состояние учения об афазии // Неврол. вестн. 1896/97.

Идельсон Г. Целебное значение Кеммерна // Сегодня. 1933. № 151.

 

 

Yakov Ioffe

(5.03.1905, Shlock, Livonia province (Sloka) - 1942/43, Riga)

 

A baritone singer. Yakov Ioffe studied law at the Universities of Latvia and Zurich and singing at the Berlin State Conservatory. In 1934-1935 he sang at the opera in Liepaja for two seasons and performed songs and arias in the Russian, Jewish, and Italian at concerts in the Jewish National House in Liepaja. Yakov Ioffe sang in the Latvian National Opera and Estonian Opera in Tallinn. In 1937 he gave concerts in Moscow. The audiences in Stockholm, Helsinki, Oslo, Paris and Zurich applauded him. In the Riga ghetto Yakof survived long enough to see the deaths of his wife and daughter, yet he sometimes performed cantor songs addressed to God for prisoners. Some prisoners recalled that his singing came from the very heart.

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Kaufmann M. Churbn Lettland: Die Vernichtung der Juden Lettlands. Konstanz, 1999. S. 241.

 

Zelik Girsh Kalmanovich

(30.10.1881, Goldingen,, Kurland province (Kuldiga) - 1944, concentration camp near Narva, Estonia)

 

Writer and specialist in Yiddish. Zelik Kalmanovich was also a translator, educator, and philologist. He was born into the family of a glazier. Zelik studied in heder (a Jewish religious primary school) and yeshiva (a school for Orthodox Jewish students where they can train to become rabbis). At the age of 15 he graduated from gymnasium in Liepaja as an external student. From 1902 to 1910 he studied semitology and other sciences in Berlin and Konigsberg. In 1919 Zelik defended his doctoral thesis at the University of Petrograd. In 1906 he began his literary career as a contributor to newspapers in Yiddish and Modern Hebrew and as a contributor of scientific articles in periodicals. Zelik taught Yiddish at courses for teachers in Minsk. At the beginning of the 1920s he settled down in Riga where taught Yiddish in a Jewish school and the edited the newspaper Letste Nais. In 1920 Kalmanovich moved to Vilnius, where he was the head of a Jewish school, an active research worker at YIVO (Jewish Research Institute), and the editor of the Institute's periodical YIVO bletter. At the beginning of the Nazi occupation he was imprisoned in the Vilnius ghetto. On the instruction of "Rozenberg's headquarters" Zelik Kalmanovich took up translating and sorting valuable Jewish books which the Nazis wanted to export to Germany. In 1941 the Ministry of Home Affairs brought up the question of race of the Karaims, a small group of people who, like the Jews, confess Judaism. (They live in the Crimea, Lithuania and Israel.)  The Ministry addressed three Jewish scholarsZ. Kalmanovich, M.Balaban, and I.Shiperwith an inquiry about the origin of the Karaims. To save the Karaims from destruction, all three scholars concluded that the origins of the Karaims and the Jews had nothing in common. Zelik Kalmanovich was one of the most significant contributors to the new philology of the Yiddish language. His scientific works are devoted to the variety of the Yiddish language in Kurland, the syntax of this language, and cognates from the Old Hebrew and German languages. Zelik Kalmanovich translated into Yiddish many scientific and literary works, among which are Jewish History by S. M. Dubnov and Judaic War by Joseph Flavius. In the ghetto he kept a diary published in YIVO bletter in Yiddish in 1951.

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Kalmanovich Z. Der idisher dialekt in Kurland // Filologishe shriftn (Vilne). 1926.1 bd. (Yiddish).

Kalmanovich Z. Yoman be-geto Vilne. Tel-Aviv, 1977.

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Гельцер Ш. Актуальность духовного наследия подвижников еврейской культуры З. Калмановича и Ш. Качергинского // Евреи в меняющемся мире: Материалы 2-й Междунар. конф., Рига, 2527 авг. 1997 г. Рига, 1998. С. 225234.

 

Wolf Kan

(7.03.1897, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

 

A physician. Wolf Kan graduated from Riga F. Herman's non-classical secondary school, and in 1915 he entered the department of economics of Riga Polytechnic Institute. This choice of high school seems to be influenced by his father, who was a merchant. From 1916 to 1918 he was a student of medicine at the University of Yurjev (now Tartu), and from 1919 to 1922 he studied at the University of Hamburg, where he received his PhD. To earn the right to take up a medical practice in Latvia, Wolf passed an exam in Latvian and was enrolled in the last year of the school of medicine at the University of Latvia. In 1923 he was given the degree of a doctor. In the second half of the 1920s Wolf was on the board of directors of his father's (Zelig Kan's) joint stock company. The enterprise traded in iron and paper. From 1923 to 1941 he worked as a medical practitioner of gynecology (women's diseases and childbirth). On September 29, 1941 Wolf Kan was evicted from his flat and imprisoned in the Riga ghetto.

 

 

Arthur (Aron ) Kelman

(28.10.1887, Jelgava - 1944/45, concentration camp Buchenwald)

                                          

Public figure and sports organizer. In 1919 Arthur Kelman left Moscow for Riga. In 1920 he was drafted by the Latvian army and served in a line-of-communication commandant's office. Arthur was awarded with a Medal "For Liberation of Latvia", was an honourable member of the Society of Jewish Liberators of Latvia. He worked as an accountant and merchant, taking an active part in public life. In 1925 Arthur Kelman joined  the board of directors of the health protection agencies "Bikur-Holim" and OZE (health protection society of the Jews). In 1926 he became the head of a sports organization "Maccaby". In the Riga ghetto Arthur Kelman was a member of the Jewish Service of Order (police), which was simultaneously the main body of an underground Nazi resistance movement. David (Daddy), Arthurs son who was a student of the University of Latvia, died as a hero when Jewish policemen/members of the resistance movement were shot. How Arthur Kelman died is unknown.

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Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. С. 134138, 141142.

 

Israel (Movsha) Kilov

(21.01.1891, Prel, Vitebsk province (Preili) - 4.07.1941, Riga)

 

A rabbi. Israel Kilov graduated from a rabbi seminary in Poland. From the beginning of the 1930s he worked as an assistant of Mendel Zack (see below), his father-in-law, who was the chief rabbi in Riga. 1934 Israel also served as a rabbi in Talsi.  Beginning in 1935 he taught in Riga yeshiva (a school for Orthodox Jewish students to train to become rabbis). On July 4, 1941 Israel Kilov and members of his synagogue were burnt alive at the synagogue "Zeilen-shul" at 63 Stabu Street by local Nazi accomplices.

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Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. P. 231.

 

Tilla Kodes

(15.08.1903, Shoenberg, Kurland province (Skaistkalne) -1941, Riga)

 

A chemical engineer.  In 1921 Tilla Kodes graduated from Riga Vinzarais-Vekshanskaya's gymnasium. From 1922 to 1929 she studied chemistry at the University of Latvia. Tilla worked in a bleachery at the Gofs brothers factory in Jelgava and after that at the company, V.A. Meyer, where she dealt with preparation of and research on cellulose. Tilla Kodes took an active part in setting up the Society of Jewish Students of Chemistry and Pharmaceutics at the University of Latvia. She was a member of the Maccaby sports organization. Tilla Kodes was shot in Rumbula.

 

Lazar Kopelovich

(1902, Rezhitsa, Vitebsk province (Rezekne) - 1941, Ventspils)

 

Psychiatrist, doctor, and public figure. In 1919 Lazar Kopelovich graduated from gymnasium in Ventspils. From 1919 to 1926 he was a student in the school of medicine at the University of Latvia. In 1926 Lazar became a volunteer doctor at the Jewish hospital in Riga. From 1927 to 1941 he was a practitioner in Ventspils. In 1928 Lazar Kopelovich specialized in children's and women's diseases in Koenigsberg and in 1930 focused on psychotherapy in Berlin, where he published a number of interesting scientific works which are still used today. In 1922 he became a deputy of Ventspils City Council, and in 1933 he was the administrator of Ventspils Jewish gymnasium. Between 1929 and 1931 Lazar published a Jewish newspaper in the German language Rigaer Judische Rundschau (Riga Jewish Review)and was an editor and publisher of Ventspils newspaper Windausche Zeitung.

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Kopelovičs L. Nervozitātes problēma. R., 1935. 55 lpp.

Kopelovičs L. Psichobioloģija // Daugava. 1931. Nr. 9.

Kopelowitsch L. Heilen durch Erkenntnis: Zwolf Gesprache ueber Erkentnistherapie. Kirchhain, 1933.

Kopelowitsch L. Die judische Presse in Lettland // Rigaer Judische Rundschau. 1929. Nr. 1. S. 1.

Kopelowitsch L. Zum Problem der Angst // Mediz. Zeitschrift. 1933. Nr. 12.

Kopelowitsch L. Das Neurosenproblem bei den Russen // Psych.-Neurol. Wochenschrift. 1934. Nr. 27.

Kopelowitsch L.Um das Wesen der Psychoterapie // Mediz. Zeitschrift. 1934. Nr. 10.

Kopelowitsch L. Zur Lehre vom Bewusstsein // Psychiatrisch Neurol. Wochenschrift. 1935. Nr. 22.

Kopelowitsh L. Die Menschenangst // Psychoterapeutische Praxis. 1936. Bd. 3.

Kopelowitsch L. Zum Leib-Seele-Problem // Psychiatr. Neurol. Wochenschrift. 1936. Nr. 14.

Kopelowitsch L. Anthropologische Medizin? // Psychiatr. Neurol. Wochenschrift.1937. Nr. 4.

Kopelowitsch L. Kritische bemerkungen zur Arbeit von T.W. Kowscharowa Versuch einer experimentellen Untersuchung der analytischen Psychoterapie // Psychoterapeutische Praxis. 1937. Bd. 3.

Kopelovitch L. Consciousness-therapy, a new method of treating neurosis // Journal of nervous and mental desease (N.Y.). 1938. May.

Копелович Л. Нервность и ее лечение: Популярный очерк. Рига, 1936.

Копелович Л. Основы изучения познательной функции мозга. Рига, 1939.

 

Luis Kopengagen

(1894, Tukums - 07.1944(?), Tukums)

 

Doctor and public figure. In 1914 Luis Kopengagen graduated from Tukums specialized school of commerce. From 1920 to 1924 he studied medicine at the University of Latvia. From 1925 to 1927 he worked as a rural doctor in Borovka town of Ilukste district. From 1927 to 1930 Luis Kopengagen was a participating doctor in Tukums hospital mutual insurance program. In the 1930s he worked as a doctor and the head of a rest home at the teachers' hospital mutual aid fund in Durbe. In 1919- 1920 and in 1930 -1934 Luis was a member of Tukums City Council. Beginning in 1927 he was in charge of Tukums department of Maccaby, the sport organization, and the health protection organization "Bikur-Holim," and the Jewish national fund. Luis Kopengagen was a very popular doctor, public figure, and philanthropist in Tukums. According to unconfirmed information he hid from the Nazis until July 1944 when he was discovered and killed.

 

Victor Kretser

 (20.09.1888, Moscow - 1944, concentration camp Buchenwald

 

Doctor. Victor Kretser was educated at the Universities of Harkov and Heidelberg. From 1914 to 1920 he worked as a general practitioner at Riga City Hospital №1. In 1920 he was drafted into the Latvian army. Holding the rank of Captain, Victor Kretser was a doctor of Liepaja garrison infirmary, later as a doctor in Kurzeme division and at hospital in Rezekne. From 1923 Victor Kretser served as a senior surgeon in a military hospital in Liepaja. In 1925 he left military service and became the head of the therapeutic department in Riga Jewish hospital "Bikur-Holim." Victor was the author of a number of publications on internal diseases. Many young talented specialists worked under his leadership; among them was Zelick Cherfas, a professor-to-be of Riga Medical Institute.  In 1941 Victor Kretser was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto and in 1944 deported to the concentration camp Buchenwald.

 

Isidor Kron

(5.07.1874, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

Neuropathologist. Isidor Kron graduated from Nikolaevskaya gymnasium in Riga. From 1893to1898 he studied medicine at the University of Yurjev (Tartu). Isidor was in charge of Riga Jewish hospital "Bikur-Holim" until 1940. In 1925 he became vice-president of the first Latvian Congress of Doctors and Dentists. Isidor Kron was a coauthor of Vladimir Mintz, an outstanding surgeon, who wrote many articles on brain surgery. In the Riga ghetto he worked in an outpatient department at the hospital "Linat-Gatsedeck" at 32 Ludzas Street.

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Kron J., Minz V. Ein Fall von Meningitis circumscripta spinalis durch Operation geheilt // Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Nervenheilkunde. 1927. Bd. 98. S. 295299.

Kron J., Minz V. Kleinhirnblutung, geheilt durch Operation // Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1927. Jg. 53. S. 10541055.

Kron J. Minz V. Uber Halsgrippen // Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1922. Jg. 48. S. 975977.

 

Miron Kron

(8.02.1906, Moscow - 1941, Riga ghetto)

 

A barrister. In 1923 Miron Kron graduated from Riga City German gymnasium, going on to study law at the University of Zurich, where he got his PhD. Miron also studied law at the University of Latvia from 1928 to 1930. In 1929 he did practical work at Riga circuit court. In 1931 Miron Kron performed the duties of an investigator at Riga circuit court. In 1931 he was enrolled in the Bar as an assistant barrister and took up a legal practice in Riga. Miron Kron was a contributor to the magazine Jurists (Lawyer").

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Krons M. Darba tiesas // Jurists. 1933. Nr. 4/5. 130.134. lpp.

Krons M. Darba tiesas // Jurists. 1932.Nr. 8. 218.220. lpp.; 1932. Nr. 9. 255.258. lpp.

Krons M. Jaunie pārgrozījumi noteikumos par piedziņas vēršanu uz nekustāmu mantu // Tieslietu Ministrijas Vēstnesis. 1933. Nr. 68.

Krons M. Kā reālizējams aizturēšanas tiesības parādniekiem pretojoties // Jurists. Nr. 4/5, 1932. 110.114. lpp.

 

Yakov Landau

(22.12.1859, Golovchino, Kursk province ( Belgorod region) -1941, Riga)

 

An educator, public figure, and politician. In 1885 Yakov Landau graduated from St. Petersburg Institute of Applied Technology as a production engineer. At the turn of the century he moved from Kiev to Riga, where in 1908 he founded a Jewish gymnasium with Russian as the language of instruction. This school remained one of the best Jewish schools in Riga until 1941. Yakov was a member of the Jewish National Democratic Party. In 1919 he worked in the amnesty commission at the Constituent Assembly of the Latvian Republic. From December 1919 until 1934 Yakov headed the Jewish education division in the Department of National Minorities at the Ministry of Education of Latvia. At the end of September 1941 he was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto.

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Ландау Я. По поводу статьи О русской школе Г. Алексинского // Сегодня. 1920. № 57.

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Волкович Б. Проблемы образования евреев в Латвийской Республике (19181940) // Евреи в меняющемся мире: Материалы 4-й Междунар. конф., Рига, 2022 ноября 2001 г. Рига, 2002. С. 122136.

Волкович Б. Из истории еврейской культуры в Латвии (19181940). Даугавпилс, 2002. Ч. 1. С. 3851.

 

 

Vladimir Landau

(25.07.1899, Kiev - 1941, Riga)

 

A doctor. Yakov Landau's (see above) son. Vladimir Landau graduated from Nikolayeskaya gymnasium in Riga. In 1916-1918 he was a student at the faculty of medicine at the University of Yurjev (Tartu).  In 1920-1924 he was a student at the University of Latvia. Vladimir Landau worked as a general practitioner in Riga until 1941.

 

Naum Lebedinsky

(21.03.1888, Odessa -10.1941, Riga)

 

A professor of zoology. Naum Lebedinsky received his PhD at the University of Zurich for his thesis entitled "Information on Morphology and History of Development of Birds' Pelvises."  In 1913-1914 he worked as an assistant in the Institute of Zoology at the University of Halle (Germany). From 1917 to 1920 Naum Lebedinsky was an adjunct lecturer at the University of Basel and became a citizen of Switzerland. He returned to Latvia in 1921 where he was a professor of zoology at the University of Latvia until 1941. From July 1, 1922 until 1941 Naum Lebedinsky was the head of the Institute of Comparative Anatomy and Experimental Zoology at the University of Latvia. In 1940-1941 he was the head of the department of hydrobiology. At the beginning of the Nazi occupation, on July 14, 1941 Naum Lebedinsky asked the German High Command to allow him to leave for Switzerland. In September 1941 he was deleted from the list of instructors in math and science at the University of Latvia at his own request in order to return to Switzerland. Having found no opportunity to leave Latvia, now occupied by the Nazis, and not wishing to be imprisoned in a ghetto, Naum Lebedinsky, his wife, and two sons committed suicide.

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Haecker G., Lebedinsky N. Uber die beschleunigende Wirkung geringer Strahldosierungen auf tierische Eier // Archiv fur mikroskopische Anatomie, 1914. [S.n., s.a.]

Lebedinsky N. Beitrage zur Morphologie und Entwiklungsgeschichte des Vogelbeckes // Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft. 1913. Bd. 50.

Lebedinsky N. G. Five years experiences with a new Rejuvenation method. Riga, 1935. 11 p.

Lebedinsky N. Sur un tetard de Rana temporaire bicephale. // Reunion bilogique de Lettonie. Riga, 1921.

Lebedinsky N. Sur une nouvelle method pour etudier l`autodifferencation des extremites chez les amphibians // Societe de biologie de Lettonie. Riga, 1922.

Lebedinsky N. Uber die Hautzeichnungen bei Vogeln und die evolutionstheoretische Bedeutung des Fehlens artspezifischer Zeichnungen in der verdeckten haut der Warmbluter. Berlin, 1929. 76 S.

Lebedinsky N. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Etwiklungsgeschichte des Unterkiefers der Vogel. Zugleich ein beitrag zu Kenntnis der Einflusses der Aussenwelt auf den Organismus // Revue suisse de Zoologie. 1918. Vol.26.

Череп носорога Rhinoceros Antiquitatis из окрестностей деревни Борки Черниговской губернии // Записки Киевского общества естествоиспытателей. 1910. Т. 21.

 

 

Abram Leibovich

(1869, Yakobstadt, Kurland province, (Jekabpils) - 1941, Riga)

 

An entrepreneur. At the beginning of the1890s Abram Leibovich set up a photography studio in Libau (Liepaja) and traded in photo goods. In 1918 he settled down in Riga, where he bought a house at 2 K. Barona Street. Abram Leibovich developed a successful business, selling photo goods and radio receivers made by the company "Siemens." In 1927 he founded a joint stock "Photo-Radio Central A.Leibovich in Riga". Abram Leibovich developed and produced a large and innovative line of top quality radio receivers, transformers, loudspeakers, condensers, photo paper, photo enlargers, and film projectors. In the Soviet period the Popov radio plant was founded on the basis of Abram Leibovich's enterprise.   

 

Naum Lichtenberg

(8.02.1914, Libau, Kurland province (Liepaja) - 1941, Liepaja)

 

A violinist. Naum Lichtenbergs father, Yakov, was a merchant from Warsaw; his mother Johanna (Chana) Lichtenberg was a music teacher from Liepaja. In 1939 Naum Lichtenberg graduated from a conservatoire where he studied with Professor A. Mec's (see below) class. Naum and his mother were killed in Liepaja in 1941; his father was killed in the concentration camp Kaiserwald in Riga in 1943.

 

Bruno Mai

(1913, Goldingen, Kurland province (Kuldiga) -13.04.1945, Magdeburg, Germany)

 

A surgeon. Bruno Mai graduated from a German gymnasium with merit. In 1931 he enrolled in the Department of Medicine at the University of Latvia. After graduating, Bruno Mai worked as a surgeon under Professor V.Mintz's (see below) guidance in the Riga Jewish hospital "Bikur-Holim." During the Nazi occupation he was a prisoner in the Riga ghetto; in 1944 Bruno Mai was deported to the concentration camp Magdeburg where he was shot on April 13, 1945 during a prisoners' deportation to the concentration camp Sachsenhausen

 

Paul Mandelstamm

(6.09.1872, Zhagori, Kovno province (Zhagare, Lithuania) - 08.1941, Riga)

 

An architect. Paul Mandelstamm graduated from Riga City German gymnasium. In 1891-1892 he was a student in the Department of Mechanics at the Riga Polytechnic School.  From 1892 to 1898 Paul Mandelstamm studied in the Department of Construction at Riga Polytechnic Institute and received his architect diploma. In 1900-1901 he worked on the construction project of a depot for electrical tramways in Riga at 2 Fridricha Street.  In 1903-1904 he was in charge of construction of a water supply system in Riga. From 1898-1915 and from 1918 to 1941 Paul Mandelstamm was a practicing architect in Riga. He designed about 50 buildings in the modern style. These buildings still beautify the capital of Latvia. Some are situated at 6 Skolas Street, 51 Elizabetes, 4 Ganu Street, 4 Dagdas Street, 132 Dzirnavu Street, 23 Kaleju Street, 14 Brivibas Street, 16 Marstalu Street, 27 Birznieka -Upisha Street, and 8 Doma Square. From 1915 to 1918 Paul Mandelstamm worked as an architect and public figure in Moscow, where he took part in technical committee  meetings on the Palestine question in connection with Balfour's Declaration supporting the setting up the Jewish national homeland in Palestine.  In 1906 the Jewish vocational school (2 Abrenes Street now) was constructed according to his design. Paul Mandelstamm was an active member of charities. He was killed at the initial stage of the Nazi occupation.

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Krastiņš J. Pauls Mandelštams // Sava krāsa varavīksnē. R., 1997. 109.113. lpp.

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P 21.

Крастиньш Я. А. Стиль модерн в архитектуре Риги. М, 1988. С. 256 и др.

 

Sophia Mester

(29.05.1918, Petrograd - 30.11.1941, Riga)

 

A student. Sophia Mester graduated from Riga Jewish public gymnasium. In the second half of 1930s she was an active member of the youth culture society "Alanick,"  which consisted of youngsters who became outstanding personalities in science and culture: Academician Solomon Hiller, Professor Mavrick Wulfson, bibliographer Eugene Eichman and others. In 1936 Sophia Mester entered the School of Law at the University of Latvia. In September 1940 she married Miron Sheinker, an engineer- mechanic. In 1941 Sophia Mester, who was pregnant, was put in the Riga ghetto. She was killed in Rumbula, together with her husband and the baby born in the ghetto.

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Eiduss J. Pagājība: Atskats un vērtējums. R., 2004. 44. lpp.

 

Adolf Mec

(1888, Dubossari -16.11.1943, Riga)

 

A violinist, an educational specialist. Adolf Mec was taught by Leo Auer, a professor of St. Petersburg Conservatoire, and Eugene Izai, an outstanding Belgian violinist. From 1912 to 1914 he was a soloist and accompanist at the Bremen Philharmonic Society. Then he returned to Moscow where he was a professor of a vocational school at the Moscow Philharmonic Society. In 1922 Adolf moved to Riga on Professor J. Vitol's invitation. There he was a professor at the Latvian Conservatoire, gave a class in violin, and performed concerts. Adolf Mec educated dozens of remarkable violinists, among which there is the legendary Sarah Rashina (see below). Critics who wrote about Adolfs mastery remarked on his cheerfulness, lightness, and sense of moderation. In 1941 he was imprisoned in a ghetto and suffered through his wife's death in Rumbula. In 1943 at the factory "Lenta" (a branch of the concentration camp Kaiserwald in Riga) three prisoners: A. Mec (violin), L. Aronson (cello), G. Godes (piano) performed P.  I. Tchaikovsky's trio, which sounded like a kind of requiem to the Latvian Jews tortured to death. Adolf Mec was killed by the Nazis on November 16, 1943 during the mass destruction of the Jews in the concentration camp Kaiserwald.

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Breģe I. Cittautu mūziķi Latvijā, 14011939. R., 2004. 121. lpp.

J. V. Adolfa Meca vijolkoncerts // Dienas Lapa. 1934. Nr. 74. 9. lpp.

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 32.

Schur M. Konzert Prof. A. Metz // Europa-Ost. 1934. Nr. 76. S. 7

Zālīts J. Professors A. Mecs // Jaunākas Ziņas. 1934. Nr. 63. 7. lpp.

Юревич В. Экзамены скрипачам в консерватории // Сегодня (зарубеж. изд.). 1936. № 138. С. 4.

 

Kalman Mizrokh

(10.12.1866, Dinaburg, Vitebsk province, (Daugavpils) - 08.12.1941, Riga)

 

An entrepreneur and philanthropist. Kalman Mizrokh was born into the family of a merchant. From the age of 15 he worked in his father's trade business. By the age of 20 Kalman founded his own business. He took part in the work of Jewish public organizations in Daugavpils, supported activities of the Talmud Torah (a religious school for boys), and was on the board of directors of  the Dvinsk Trade Bank. During the World War I Kalman Mizrokh moved to Vitebsk, where he became a prominent public and bank leader in the town. After the war he moved to Riga where he set up an enterprise together with his sons Isaak and Ovsey. It specialized in the production and sale of yeast, vinegar, malt extract, and flour. Kalman Mizrokh supported the activities of Jewish schools and yeshivas (a school for Orthodox Jewish students to train to become rabbis), and the Jewish hospital "Bikur- Holim." He was thanked officially by President of Latvia A. Kviesis for helping to restore the national economy of the country after the war.

 

Vladimir Mintz

(16.09.1872, Dinaburg, Vitebsk province ( Daugavpils) - 02.1945, concentration camp Buchenwald)

 

A surgeon, a founder of anesthesiology, neurosurgery and thorax surgery in Latvia. Vladimir Mintz came from ancient rabbi stock that originated in the fifteenth century. He was born into the family of a merchant and was brought up in the spirit of German culture. In 1883- 1889 Vladimir Mintz studied at Riga City gymnasium; from 1890 to 1895 he was a student of medicine at the University of Yurjev (now Tartu). In 1896 Vladimir Mintz was awarded the degree of PhD. in medicine after defending the thesis "Drehungshindernisse nach Vorderarmbruechen."  In 1896-1897 he worked on probation at the clinic of James Izrael, who was a prominent German urologist and surgeon. In 1902 Vladimir Mintz was a doctor at an outpatient clinic at Staro-Yekateriniskaya Hospital in Moscow. In 1903 he was elected secretary of the Moscow Surgical Society. In 1906 Vladimir Mintz was an adjunct lecturer (an unestablished university lecturer) and an editor (together with Professor Sokolov ) of the magazine Vestnik Hirurgii (Surgery Bulletin). From 1904 to 1916 he was the secretary of the All-Russian Surgical Society. From 1917 to 1920 Vladimir Mintz was a professor at the University of Moscow, the head of the Department of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery, the head of the Department of Surgery at Moscow Central Hospital. He studied issues on mastopathy, conducted research on pathology and treatment of diseases of the urino-genital system. Vladimir Mintz worked in the field of oncology and diseases of the ear, nose and throat, and contributed to development of surgery of bile passages. He was the first to perform the surgical closing of perforated stomach ulcer in Russia (in 1908). From August to September 1918 he was in charge of the treatment of V.I. Lenin after F. Kaplan's attempt upon his life. In April 1920 Vladimir Mintz returned to Riga. From 1925 to 1940 he was the Head of the Department of Surgery of the Jewish hospital "Bikur- Holim." In 1938 he was the first in Latvia to perform reparation of an arterial blood vessel, a forehead ectonomy, a resection of purulent pericardium, and brain surgery. Beginning October 22, 1940 Vladimir Mintz was a professor at the University of Latvia, heading the Department of Hospital Surgery. After the beginning of the Nazi occupation Vladimir Mintz was struck off the list of the teaching staff according to the decision of the university council on July 25, 1941.  He worked in a hospital for prisoners of war. Then Vladimir Mintz was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto, escaping from shooting in Rumbula by a miracle. He set up an outpatient clinic in the ghetto, performed surgical operations, and gave prisoners medical help and support for their morale under extremely difficult conditions. Vladimir Mintz was a prisoner of the concentration camps Kaiserwald (Riga), Stutthof, and Buchenwald, where he died of starvation and disease in February 1945.

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V.Mintz is the author of more than 100 publications a full list of which can be found in the book: Альтшулер Б., Черфас Д. Профессор Минц. Рига, 1970. 70 с.

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Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 23.

Альтшулер Б., Черфас Д. Профессор Минц. Рига, 1970. 70 с.

Левенштейн М. На краю нигде // Книга спасения / Авт.-сост. и лит. зап. Л. Коваль. Юрмала, 1993. Ч. 1. С. 108110.

Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. С. 3536, 131134.

 

Isaak Morein

(28.12.1903, Kreitsburg, Vitebsk Province(Krustpils) - 1941, Riga?)

 

A reporter, a reviewer on Jewish media at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Latvia. Isaak Morein came from stock famous for its Jewish scientific knowledge. He graduated from Y. Landau Gymnasium in Riga and studied law at the University of Latvia. In 1926 his father David Morein, a worker at a saw mill, died as a result of an accident. After his father's death Isaak worked hard to provide for his family. He had already been giving private classes during his years at the gymnasium. From 1926 to 1930 Isaak taught Latvian at the Jewish school Tushia.  From 1930 until October 7, 1940 he worked as a reviewer on Jewish media at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. His small salary did not allow him to pay for his studies, and he was forced to withdraw from the University of Latvia. Isaak widely popularized Latvia and its achievements in his books and articles, which were published in Yiddish, Hebrew, German, French and Arabic. Isaak Morein gave lectures on Latvia in Jerusalem, Kaunas, and Athens. He was a cofounder of the newspaper Ovnt-post (The Evening Post). Isaak Morein consulted on the repertoire of the Jewish theatre in Riga. He was a member of the Latvian union of writers and reporters.

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Krustpilnieks J. (I. Moreina pseudonims). Tirdzniecība, rūpniecība un valūtas noteikumi Latvijā: Rokas grāmata tirgotājiem un rūpniekiem. R., 1935. 69 lpp.

Moreins I. Jauna Latvija: Politiska, saimnieciska un kulturālā atdzimšana. R., 1934. 88 lpp. (Jdiša val.).

Moreins I. Ilustrēts vadonis pa Latviju. R., 1932. 82 lpp. (Jidiša val.)

Moreins I. Latvija. R., 1929. 128 lpp. (Jdiša val.)

Moreins I. Latvija un viņas kurorti. R., 1933. 80 lpp. (Jidiš val.)

Moreins I. Latvijas 15 gadi: Republikas dibināšana un attīstība. R., 1933. 78 lpp. (Jdiša val.)

Moreins I. La Lettonie nouvelle. Faits et tendances. Riga, 1935. 76 p.

Moreins I. Wirtschaft und Kultur der Baltischen Staaten: Lettland, Estland, Litauen. Riga, 1934. 120 S.

 

Frida Naikhina

(1900, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

A neuropathologist and a psychiatrist. In 1918 Frida Naikhina graduated from Riga Dolgikh's gymnasium for girls in Petrograd. She attended classes in law, history, and philology at the University of Petrograd and was a student in the School of Medicine at the University of Latvia. Frida Naikhina was a volunteer assistant in the Department of Neurology at Riga Jewish hospital "Bikur-Holim." From 1928 to 1941 she established a private practice in Riga, owning the clinic "Mezha Pils" in Mezhapark (31 Hamburgas Street in Riga). Frida Naikhina was a secretary of the board of directors of the Society of Jews- Philistines at the University of Latvia and Riga Polytechnic Institute, a member of the Society of Jewish Doctors, the Society of Russian Doctors in Latvia, and the Latvian Neurological Society.

 

Leon (Levi, Leib) Ovchinsky

(03.08.1871, Dovgilishki, Vilno province- 07/08. 1941, Jelgava)

 

A rabbi and a writer. From the age of eight Leon Ovchinsky studied at heder (a primary religious school for boys). In 1884 he graduated from yeshiva (a school for Orthodox Jewish students to train to become rabbis) in Sventsyani (Shvenchenis, Lithuania), and from 1884 to 1887 he studied at a rabbi seminary in Lida, Vilno province ( Grodno region, Belarus) under the leadership of the prominent rabbi Itskhak Raines. Leon then became a student of the rabbi L. Margolis in Yakobstadt (Jekabpils), later serving as a rabbi in 1897 in Alt-Auts (Auce) in Kurland province. Leon Ovchinsky wrote and published a number of theological and historical works in Hebrew: Nakhlat Avot rabbis' biographical dictionary (1894), Toledot Yeshibat Khaiekhudim Be-Kurland (1908)a history of Jewish communities in Kurland in the sixteenth- twentieth centuries, based on rare Jewish chronicles and local communities' documents and supplied with information about rabbis, writers and public figures. From 1919 to 1941 Leon Ovchinsky was the chief rabbi in Jelgava.

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Ovčinskis L. Ebrēju vēsture Kurzemē un Zemgalē, 15611923. R., 1928. 196 lpp. (Jidiša val.).

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Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. P. 236.

 

Raisa Otsup

(7.12.1900, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

A pianist. Raisa Otsup studied in Paris with Nikolai Metner, a famous Russian composer and pianist. She gave concerts in Riga, performing musical compositions by Bach, Mozart, Mendelsohn, and Stravinsky, Metner and critics often pointed out her exquisite rendering technique. Raisa Otsup gave private classes and was very popular as a highly qualified instructor. In 1935 she married Sergey Tager, a pianist and a conservatoire instructor, who also died in a ghetto.

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Brems M. Bachs, Mocarts, Mendelsons// Latvijas Kareivis. 1936. Nr. 231. 4. lpp.

Lesiņš K. Raisas Ocupes koncerts // Brīva Zeme. 1936. Nr. 230. 12. lpp.

Алмазов С. Концерт Раисы Оцуп // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 233. C. 6.

 

Mozus Parparov

(5.10.1891, Velizh, Vitebsk province (Smolensk region, Russia) - 07.1941, Riga)

 

An artist. Being born deaf and mute Mozus Paparov was brought by his parents to Riga, where he studied at a school for deaf mutes from 1900 to 1908. From 1920 to 1941 he lived and devoted himself to painting in Riga and Ludza. In the winter of 1936-37 his personal exhibition took place in Riga, in the Jewish club (6 Skolas Street). His realistically painted canvases depict side streets in Ludza and Daugavpils, a student rabbi and a market woman selling poultry, a homeless family and a Jewish holiday, tea-drinking at a Russian samovar and pilgrims. All of his paintings reflect the artist's mood well. Mozus Parparov was often invited to paint portraits; in particular, he portrayed S.M.Dubnov (see above), a professor of history, and Y. Hoff, a famous entrepreneur in Jelgava.

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M. Parparova gleznu izstāde. R., 1936. (Izstādes katalogs).

 

Aaron Betsalel Paul

(19.07.1871, Dinaburg, Vitebsk province (Dauvgavpils) -08.12.1941, Riga)

 

A rabbi. From childhood Aaron Paul showed outstanding abilities. He studied at gymnasium in Lomza (Poland), and in yeshivas in Lomza, Kovno (Kaunas, Lithuania), and Volozhin of Vilno Province (now in Belarus). By the age of 17 Aaron had been ordained to be a rabbi by M. S. Kats-Kagan in Daugavpils and P. Shapiro in Volozhin, two well-known rabbis. At the age of 20 Aaron entered the School of Philosophy and Philology at the University of Konigsberg. In 1906 Aaron became a rabbi at Rozenovo (Zilupe) and served there for 13 years. During World War I he helped refugees from Kurland and Lithuania. In 1918 during the German occupation Aaron was appointed the head of the town council in Rozenovo. From 1919-1941 he was a rabbi in Jaunjelgava. Thanks to his endless care, financial support of the American Jewish charity "Joint and ex residents of Jaunjelgava living in the USA, a Jewish religious school was built in the town. Aaron Betsalel Paul was elected deputy of Jaunjelgava town council; he had been a deputy mayor for eight years. From 1925 Aaron Betsalel Paul was the head of City Jewish Basic School  and a member of Jaunjelgava Red Cross. He was one of the most popular and respected rabbis in Latvia.

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Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. P. 237.

 

Yakov Pernyack

(19.05.1890, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

A production engineer and an educator. Yakov Pernyack graduated from Riga F. Herman's non-classical secondary school in 1908.He was a student in the Department of Mechanics at Riga Polytechnic Institute from 1908 to 1918. In 1918 in Moscow Yakov Pernyack was in charge of a design office and worked as the chief expert of the auto section at the Supreme Council of the National Economy. Beginning in 1920 he worked in the administration of Jewish education at the Department of National Minorities at the Ministry of Education of Latvia. From 1921 Yakov Pernyack worked as an instructor of the gymnasium Ivrit in Riga. He was the last head of this academic institution. Yakov Pernyack was a great expert on Judaism and science. On October 22, 1942 he was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto.

 

Iser Polonsky

( 1870, Golshani, Vilno province (Belorus) - 07.1941, Liepaja)

 

A rabbi. From 1895 to 1899 Iser Polonsky studied at yeshivas in Lida of Vilno province (Byelorussia) and Volozhin of Vilno province (Byelorussia). From 1925 he was a rabbi in Liepaja. Iser Polonsky was killed at the beginning of the Nazi occupation; his wife Mirele (born in 1878) was shot in Liepaja on December 15, 1941.

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Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. P. 238.

 

Olga Ratner

(7.01.1910, Moscow -1941, Riga)

 

A pharmaceutical chemist. Olga Ratner was born into the family of a doctor. She graduated from L. I. Tailova's Russian gymnasium in Riga. In 1928 she entered the Department of Pharmaceutics in the School of Chemistry at the University of Latvia. In 1937 Olga Ratner received the degree of a candidate of pharmaceutics and worked as a pharmaceutical chemist in Riga, then as a manager of "Central" pharmacy in Varaklani. Olga Ratner was a senior member of the female Jewish student organization "Yardenia" at the University of Latvia.

 

Rea (Rebecca) Ratner

(26.03.1901, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

A singer, a pianist, a teacher of music. Rea Ratner graduated from St. Petersburg Conservatoire. She settled down in Riga after World War I and did successful musical tours throughout Western Europe. Critics hearing her concerts noted her refined, more intellectual than emotional style of performance and her high musical and vocal culture. In her repertoire were songs in many languages--Latvian, Jewish, German, English, Russian and Italian. As a result of a troubled personal life, Rea Ratner nearly stopped giving concerts and retreated to teaching, in particular, giving lessons to Mikhail Alexandrovich, a famous singer. On August 14, 1941 Rea Ratner was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto.

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Lesiņš K. Reas Ratneres koncerts // Brīva Zeme. 1936. Nr. 103. 12. lpp.

Schur M. Konzert Rea Rattner // Europa-Ost. 1934. Nr. 69. 6. lpp.

Zālīts J. Rea Ratneres koncerta programmā // Jaunākas Ziņas. Nr. 57. 1934. 7. lpp.

Александрович М. Я помню: Воспоминания. Мюнхен, 1985. С. 7075.

В. Ю. Концерт Р. Раттнер // Сегодня вечером. 1934. № 57. С. 4.

 

Sarah Rashina

(23.05.1920, Liepaja - 30.11.1941, Riga)

 

A violinist, the daughter of a watchmaker. Sarah Rashina gave her first concert at the age of 12 in Jelgava. In 1937 she graduated from the Latvian Conservatoire, Professor A. Mec's (see above) class. In 1937 she was awarded with a diploma from E. Izai's international contest in Brussels. She gave concerts in Riga, Liepaja, Paris, London, and Warsaw. Her repertoire included "Spanish dance" by De Falla, Jewish tunes arranged by Akhron, musical compositions by Corelli, Venyavsky, Vitol, Tertini, Mendelsohn, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Izai, and other composers. Critics unanimously recognized Rashina's outstanding talent and irreproachable style of performance. In the summer of 1940 she accompanied the Kemeri orchestra. Sarah Rashina was shot in Rumbula in the environs of Riga. Legends grew about the last minutes of the famous violinist's life. One of them relates that before death she played the violin on the edge of a mass grave. Another legend was reflected in the story Black Diamond by Zhanis Griva, a Latvian writer, in which Rashina was portrayed under the name of Lea Girshman.

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Breģe I. Cittautu mūziķi Latvijā, 14011939. Rīga, 2004. 159. lpp.

Grīva Ž. Melnais dimants // Kop. r.: 8 sēj. R., 1970. 1. sēj. 354.370. lpp.

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 72.

W.K. Konzert der Geigerin S. Raschin. Libausche Zeitung, 1936, Nr. 40, S.4.

Ю.В. Концерт Сары Рашиной. // Сегодня вечером. 1934. № 45. С. 6.

 

Ruvim (Rudolf) Rubinstein

(31.03.1891, Riga -1.07.1941, Riga)

 

A reporter, a publishing manager of the newspaper Segodnya, the owner of the publishing house "Filin," and a publisher of the magazine Dlya Vas. Ruvim Rubinstein was killed near his house at 16 Mezha Avenue on July 1, 1941, the day that German troops entered Riga.

 

David Skolnik

(9.11.1878, Riga - 07.1941, Riga)

 

A painter and a sculptor. The romanticism of Old Rigaits sidestreets, yards, and ships at the quayinspired him. David Skolnik painted a harbour, the sea, a bridge in Ogre, a Latvian country yard and landscapes. Critics called him "a real poet of colour" and "a psychologist of colour who tries to characterize a subject by his special perception." In the spring of 1935 his personal exhibition of painting and sculpture took place. David Skolnik was the chairman of the Society of Jewish Ppainters of Latvia and a member of the Latvian Arts Society. At the same time he managed the biscuit factory "London." David Skolnik was killed in the beginning of July 1941.  His widow and his daughters, Noemi (born in 1917) and Ruta (born in 1920), who studied at Latvian Academy of Arts, died in the Riga ghetto.

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D. Skolnika glēznu un skulptūru izstāde. R., 1935. (Izstādes katalogs).

 

Roza Slovina

(4.11.1911, Riga -1941, Riga)

 

A pianist. In 1933 Roza Slovina graduated from the Latvian Conservatoire with merit, Professor P. Shubert's class. Critics of her first concerts noted the pianist's musicality and style, some lack of technique in the area of rhythm, observation of phrasing, power and distinctness of strike. Roza Slovina performed musical compositions by Skryabin, Medinsh, Chopin, Debussy, and fantasias by Schumann. She improved her skill by studying with A. Borovsky, a famous pianist. In 1937 Roza Slovina performed at the Chopin contest, along with M.Bezobrazova. In 1939 she played her first concert by Tchaikovsky with the Riga Symphony Orchestra in Verman Park in Riga. There Roza Slovina displayed a virtuoso, technically perfect performance. In 1940 she became an instructor at the Latvian Conservatoire and held a class together with A. Zhilinsky, a famous Latvian composer and a pianist.

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Zālīts J. Pianiste R. Slovina // Jaunākas Ziņas. 1933. Nr. 282. 7. lpp.

 

Arkadi Jacob Aron Schwab

(31.03.1884, Sauliai district, Lithuania 07. or 08.1941, Liepaja)

 

Dr. Schwab lived most of his life in Liepaja. He graduated from Liepaja Nikolai gymnasium; he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in Estonia in 1903-1909. Following his studies in Estonia he continued his medical education in Berlin, Germany, where he specialized in gastroenterology under the world renowned gastroenterologist Dr. Boas. On returning from Berlin in the early 1910s Dr. Schwab opened his medical practice in Liepaja. Because of his medical specialty, he was drafted into the czarist army with the rank of colonel. Dr. Schwab resumed his practice in Liepaja after the war and in the mid 1920s he was the first physician in Latvia to introduce insulin in the treatment of patients diagnosed with diabetes. He did a great deal of research in gastroenterology and lectured about his findings in Berlin, Riga and elsewhere. Dr. Schwab also published some of his findings in the Viennese Aerzte Zeitung. Due to his eminence, he attracted patients from all over Latvia and from cities in neighboring countries, including Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad). Dr. Schwab continued to practice medicine until he was murdered by the Nazis and their local collaborators at the end of July or beginning of August 1941.

Latvia thus lost a pioneer in medicine.

 

Ovsey Tabachnik

(1.07.1883, Riga - 1941, Riga)

 

The director of Riga Circus. He was arrested in his flat on July 19, 1941 and killed.

 

Sergey (Samuil) Tager

(8.02.1895, Dvinsk, Vitebsk province (Daugavpils) -1941, Riga)

 

A pianist. He received his musical education in Berlin high music school, studying with Egon Petri, a pianist. Sergey Tager was one of the most talented Latvian pianists. In the1920s-30s he performed in Paris, Rome, Vienna and other European capitols time and again. In 1926-1927 Sergey Tager gave a large concert tour around cities of the USA. He performed musical compositions by Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, the suite de piece in F minor by Handel, and part of a concert by Marcello. Sergey Tager gave private music classes in Riga. From 1940 he was a senior lecturer at the Conservatoire of Latvia. Sergey Tager was arrested in his flat the night of July 2 to July 3, 1941. His wife, Raisa Tager (nee Otsup), also a pianist, died in the Riga ghetto.

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Zālītis J. Sergeja Tagera klaviervakars // Jaunakas Ziņas. 1936. Nr. 264. 4. lpp.

В четверг С.Тагер выступает в концертном зале Черноголовых // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 265. С. 6.

 

Edgar Thal

(2.08.1910, Riga - 1941, Riga ghetto)

 

One of the best pianists in Riga. Edgar Thal performed musical compositions by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Ravel. He was imprisoned in the Riga ghetto in October 1941.

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Gruenberg E. Klavierkonzert Edgar Thal // Rigasche Post. 1936. Nr. 12. S. 7.

Алмазов С. Концерт на двух роялях Э. Орковой-Тальрозе и Э. Таля // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 278. С. 5.

Юревич В. Концерт Э. Таля // Сегодня вечером. 1936. № 54. С. 6.

 

Mark Vaintrob

(15.08.1895, Kiev - 1941/42, Riga)

 

A philosopher and a historian, an educational specialist. Mark Vaintrob was an adjunct lecturer (an unestablished university lecturer) at the University of Moscow. He settled down in Riga in the beginning of the 1920s. Mark also worked as an adjunct lecturer at the Russian Institute of University Knowledge and as an instructor at a number of Jewish schools. He authored a number of books on history and philosophy as well as the Jewish question. He wrote the only book on medieval philosophy published in Latvia.  Mark was also a brilliant public speaker ("a silver-tongued orator of Riga"). At the end of the 1930s Mark Vaintrob immigrated to the USA but returned to Latvia. After Latvia joined the USSR, he refused to cooperate with the Soviets. During the Nazi occupation Mark Vaintrob committed suicide.

 

Вайнтроб М. Дети-школьники и политические организации. Рига, 1929. 16 с.

Вайнтроб М. Душа голусного еврея: Опыт социального-психологического анализа. Рига. 1932. 144 с.

Вайнтроб М. История средневековой философии Рига. 1928. Ч. 1. 350 с.

Вайнтроб М. К проблеме коэдукации. Рига, 1929. 16 с.

Вайнтроб М. К проблеме национального творчества. Рига, 1921. Ч. 1. Вып.1. 130 с.

Вайнтроб М. К проблеме национального творчества: Национальное творчество в искусстве. Рига, 1922. Ч. 1. Вып. 2. 276с.

Вайнтроб М. О наглядности в обучении. Рига, 1927. 14 с.

Вайнтроб М. Очерк философии Анри Бергсона. Рига, 1927. 16 с.

Вайнтроб М. Причины происхождения антисемитизма: Опыт социально-психологического анализа. Рига, 1927. 14 с.

Вайнтроб М. Этика иудаизма. Рига. 1929. 8 с.

Вайнтроб М., Лазерсон М. Причины происхождения антисемитизма // Сегодня. 1927. № 124.

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Kovalchuk S. Jewish philosophy in Latvia in the 20s30s: M. Vaintrob, M. Lazerson, M. Shats-Anin // Jews in a changing world: Materials of the 1st Intern. Conf., Riga, Aug. 2829, 1995. Riga, 1997. P. 8489.

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. P. 38.

Ковальчук С. Романтическая душа Марка Вайнтроба // Евреи в меняющемся мире: Материалы 2-й Междунар. конф., Рига, 2527 авг. 1997 г. Рига, 1998. С. 113121.

Ковальчук С. Из истории высшей школы в довоенной Латвии: евреи на русских университетских курсах в Риге (19211937) // Евреи в меняющемся мире: Материалы 4-й Междунар. конф., Рига, 2022 нояб. 2001 г. Рига, 2002. С. 146158.

Пухляк О. Проблема национального самосознания в трудах Марка Вайнтроба // Евреи в меняющемся мире: Материалы 2-й Междунар. конф., Рига, 2527 авг. 1997 г. Рига, 1998. С. 164169.

 

 

Itskhak Vaispap

(1899, Lutsin, Vitebsk province (Ludza) - 1941/42, Riga)

 

One of the founders and leaders of the Society of Jewish Liberators of Latvia. From 1917 Itskhak Vaispap took an active part in the Zionist movement, joining the Party of Left-wing Zionists "Tseirei-tsion". In 1919 he was arrested by Bolsheviks for his public activities. In 1923 he had took up journalism. From 1922 to1926 Itskhak Vaispap was a member of Ludza town council. In May 1933 he was elected member of the central council of the All-Latvian Union of Veterans of the Latvian Army. Itskhak Vaispap was on the board of directors of the Latvian Jewish Workers' Sport Society "Hapoel".

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Vaispaps I. Ideja, kas piepildījusies // Židu tautības Latvijas atbrīvotāju biedrības almanachs. R., 1938. 10. lpp.

Vaispaps I. Židu piedalīšanās Latvijas Atbrīvošanas karā // Atbrīvotājs: Žīdu tautības Latvijas atbrīvotāju biedrība: Almanachs. R., 1933. 18.20. lpp.

 

Gita Vater

(05.05.1884, Riga - 1941, Riga ghetto)

 

A dentist. In 1904 Gita graduated from the University of Tartu and opened a private dentist practice in Riga. During World War I Gita Vater evacuated to Saratov, where she studied piano at the Saratov Conservatoire, graduating in 1917. On her return to Riga in 1922, she resumed her dentist practice and gave music classes at the same time. On July 22, 1941 Gita Vater was arrested by the Nazis and taken to the Riga ghetto. She and her husband died in Rumbula on November 30 or December 8, 1941.

 

Andrei (Andor) Vespremi

(17.03.1898, Kovasna, Romania -1943/44, Riga)

 

An artist and an educational specialist. In 1915 Andrei Vespremi graduated from a commercial college in Budapest. In 1923 he graduated from a private arts and Reiman's arts vocational school in Berlin. From 1924 he was the head of an arts school in Bucharest. When Andrei married Gizel Freidenberg, who lived in Riga, he also moved to Riga in 1927 and became a citizen of Latvia in 1934. Andrei Vespremi worked as a teacher of arts and handicraft in Jewish basic schools and gymnasiums, among them there were a private Jewish basic school and the gymnasium "Ezra."  In 1931 Andrei graduated from a two-year Jewish course on education in Riga. He was a talented graphic artist and designer who participated in exhibitions in Bucharest (1926) and Riga (1930). Andrei Vespremi was a prisoner of the Riga ghetto and the concentration camp Kaiserwald (Riga). He was killed for resistance to Nazi humiliation.

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Левенштейн М. На краю нигде // Книга спасения / Авт.-сост. и лит. зап. Л. Коваль. Юрмала, 1993. Ч. 1. С. 134135.

Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. С. 188189.

 

 

 

Yakov Vitenberg

(14.11.1874, Dinaburg (Dauvgavpils) - 1941, Dauvgavpils?)

 

An economist, an entrepreneur, a public figure. Yakov Vitenberg was born into the family of a prominent entrepreneur and merchant. He graduated from gymnasium in Kiev, studied at the Department of Economics of Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1898-1901. As a doctor of commerce. From 1901 to 1905 Yakov Vitenberg managed a warehouse of cast iron goods for the company "D.D.Vittenberg" in St. Petersburg. From 1905 to 1910 he was represented the Maltsev factories' joint stock at Nizhnij Novgorod's fair. From 1910 to 1917 Yakov Vitenberg was on the board of directors of the Fourth Society of Mutual Credit and served in insurance companies. He worked in the chief department of the Red Cross in Petrograd and was one of the founders of the hospital in the Petrograd suburb " Moskovskaya Zastava." In 1918-1925 Yakov Vitenberg worked in Murmansk iron and tanning companies. From 1925 he lived in Riga where he was on the board of directors of the Baltic-Brussels Society in Brussels. In 1928-1930 he founded and became vice-chairman of the Society of Mutual Credit of the Latvian textile industry. From 1931 he worked as a lecturer of commerce correspondence of the Institute of Commerce in Riga. As a publicist. Yakov Vitenberg wrote for the magazine Ahdut ("Unity"), newspapers Yevrejskaya Tribuna and Dvinskij Golos.  As a civic organizer.  Yakov was a member of the central committee of the Jewish Progressive Union. In 1928-1932 he founded the Latvian Economic Society and was on its board of directors. Yakov Vitenberg was an opponent of communism and National Socialism, he appealed to friendly cooperation of all nationalities in Latvia "to build a motherland." He was the largest houseowner in Dauvgavpils and a protector of all houseowners' interests. Yakov Vitenberg was a vice-chairman of the Council of Elders of Daugavpils City club. He ran an export-import business and took part in the work of many charities.

 

Simon Vittenberg

(16.01.1903, Lepel, Vitebsk province (Belarus) - 1945, concentration camp Buhenvaldt)

 

A lawyer. Simon Vittenberg graduated from the School of Law at the University of Latvia. He worked as an adviser of Riga City Council in 1928-1934 and as the head of the school "Tora ve derekh erets" ("the Torah and education"). From 1931 to 1934 he was the elected deputy of the Fourth Saeima (Latvian Parliament) from the Religious Conservative Party "Agudat-Israel". Simon Vittenberg became popular as a knowledgeable speaker on issues of finance and economics; in 1932 he criticized the credit policy of the Ministry of Finance and the Bank of Latvia, which hindered the development of private enterprises. Simon Vittenberg took an active part in conferences of religious students of the Baltic countries and was one of the organizers of a boycott of the goods produced by Hitlers Germany.  In the years of the Nazi occupation he was a prisoner of the Riga ghetto. Simon Vittenberg buoyed up the prisoners' spirits, began to establish a Jewish school in the ghetto, and saved from profanity and carried several Torah scrolls to the ghetto. Simon Vittenberg died of starvation in concentration camp Buchenwald in 1945.

 

Avigdor Volshonok

(08.1870 - 30.11.1941, Riga)

 

A religious and public figure. Avigdor Volshonok worked as a sales manager of wood at merchant Shaya Berlin's. He was the chairman of the Latvian Religious Party "Agudat-Israel". Avigdor Volshonok made large financial donations to support yeshivas (a school for Orthodox Jewish students where they can train to become rabbis) in Latvia and abroad. He was one of the most popular public figures of the Orthodox Jewish in Latvia. Avigdor Volshonok was shot in Rumbula.

 

Menachem Mendel Zak

(18.03.1868, Fridrichstadt, Kurland Province (Jaunjelgava) -1941, Riga)

 

A rabbi. He studied in yeshiva (a school for Orthodox Jewish students to train to become rabbis) in Brest-Litovsk (Brest, Belarus) and in Volozhin of Vilno Province (Belarus). From 1895 to 1899 Menachem Mendel Zak was a rabbi in Vegere in Kovensk Province (Vyagyaryai, Lithuania). In 1899 he was elected rabbi of Kandau (Kandava) in Kurland province. From 1913 Menachem Mendel Zak worked as an assistant to the chief rabbi in Riga. From 1915 to 941 he was the chief rabbi in Riga. In September 1941 Menachem Mendel Zak was imprisoned in a ghetto, where he founded an underground synagogue. He was killed in Rumbula on November 30 or December 8, 1941.

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Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. P. 244.

 

Edit Zalkinder

(23.02.1909, Talsi - 1941, Riga)

 

An educator. In 1927 Edit Zalkinder graduated from a secondary school in Talsi. In 1928 she entered the department of history in the School of Philology at the University of Latvia. Edit Zalkinder taught history in a Jewish basic school and the gymnasium "Ezra" in Riga. In September 1940 she was appointed to perform the duties of the head of Riga City Jewish school № 3.

 

Maria Zalmanovich

(4.05.1903, Liepaja - 1941, Liepaja)

 

A pianist. Throughout the 1930's Maria Zalmanovich gave concerts. In October 1932 the record of S. Rachmaninov's concert № 5 for piano performed by Maria Zalmanovich was broadcast on the radio. She was a senior lecturer at the Latvian Conservatoire in 1940-1941. In June 1941 she visited her relatives in Liepaja, where she was killed by the Nazis.

 

Isaak Zingel

(3.09.1892, Riga - 21.07.1941, Riga)

 

A barrister, a public figure. Issak Zingel graduated from Alexandrov's gymnasium in Riga. From 1911 to 1915 he studied at the School of Law at the Yurjev (now Tartu) University. Issak was a member of the council of the Society of Jewish Barristers in Latvia and the chairman of the board of directors of the Jewish Club. Issak Zingel was killed by local Nazi collaborators on July 21, 1941 on the premises of Riga prefecture (the department of police) after he had made a protest against humiliation of the Jews and called it a violation of standards of international law.

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Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. С. 4445.

 

FUNDS OF LATVIAN STATE HISTORIC ARCHIVES USED

 

5024. Latvijas ebreju draudžu metriku grāmatas, 18541905.

2942. Rigas pilsētas mājas grāmatas, 19191945.

132. Latvijas PSR Ārkārtējā komisija, 19441945.

7427. Latvijas Valsts Universitāte (studentu personīgas lietas), 19191940.

2996. Rīgas prefektūras pasu lietu kolekcija, 19191940.

4011. Materiāli par personām Rīgā un Baltijas provincēs, 16011939.

1370. Iekšlietu Ministrijas baznīcu un konfesiju departaments, 19191940.

 

FUNDS OF LATVIAN STATE ARCHIVES USED

 

485. Latvijas Mākslas Akadēmija.

1655. Latvijas Valsts Konservatorija.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Anders E., Dubrovskis J. Jews in Liepāja, Latvia: a memorial book. Burlingame, 2001. 199 p.

Breģe I. Cittautu mūziķi Latvijā 1401-1939. Rīga, 2001. 230 lpp.

Eiduss J. Pagājība: Atskats un vērtējums. R., 2004. 284. lpp.

The Jews in Latvia. Tel Aviv, 1971. 384 p.

Kaufmann M. Churbn Lettland: Die Vernichtung der Juden Lettlands. Konstanz, 1998. 542 S.

Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. 294 p. (Text parall. Latv., Rus., Eng., Hebr.)

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. 127 p.

Sava krāsa varavīksnē. R., 1997. 237 lpp.

Vatere E. Ebreji-mediķi Latvijā (19181996): Enciklopēdija. R., 1997. 258. lpp. (Текст парал. на латыш. и рус.)

Альбом общества филистеров-евреев Латвийского университета и Рижского политехнического института, 19081933. Рига, 1934. 109 с.

Альтшулер Б., Черфас Д. Профессор Минц. Рига,1970. 70 с.

Бергман А. Записки недочеловека. Рига, 2005. 320 с.

Левенштейн М. На краю нигде // Книга спасения / Авт.-сост. и лит. зап. Л. Коваль. Юрмала, 1993. Ч. 1. С. 100169.

Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. 248 с.

 

 

 

FUNDS OF LATVIAN STATE HISTORIC ARCHIVES USED

 

5024. Latvian Jewish Community Birth-Certificates, 18541905.

2942. Riga City Residential Books', 19191945.

132.    Latvian SSR Extaordinary Commitee, 19441945.

7427. Latvian State University (students' personal files), 19191940.

2996. Riga Prefecture Collection of Passport Records, 19191940.

4011. Materials on Residents of Riga and Baltic Provinces , 16011939.

1370. Department of Church and Confession of the Ministry of Home Affairs, 19191940.

 

FUNDS OF LATVIAN STATE ARCHIVES USED

 

485. Latvian Academy of Arts

1655. Latvian State Conservatoire.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Anders E., Dubrovskis J. Jews in Liepāja, Latvia: a memorial book. Burlingame, 2001. 199 p.

Breģe I. Cittautu mūziķi Latvijā 1401-1939. Rīga, 2001. 230 lpp.

Eiduss J. Pagājība: Atskats un vērtējums. R., 2004. 284. lpp.

The Jews in Latvia. Tel Aviv, 1971. 384 p.

Kaufmann M. Churbn Lettland: Die Vernichtung der Juden Lettlands. Konstanz, 1998. 542 S.

Latvia: Synagogues and Rabbis, 19181940 / Text auth. a. comp. R. Bogdanova. Riga, 2004. 294 p. (Text parall. Latv., Rus., Eng., Hebr.)

Outstanding Jewish personalities in Latvia / Text aut. G. Smirin. Riga, 2003. 127 p.

Sava krāsa varavīksnē. R., 1997. 237 lpp.

Vatere E. Ebreji-mediķi Latvijā (19181996): Enciklopēdija. R., 1997. 258. lpp. (Текст парал. на латыш. и рус.)

Альбом общества филистеров-евреев Латвийского университета и Рижского политехнического института, 19081933. Рига, 1934. 109 с.

Альтшулер Б., Черфас Д. Профессор Минц. Рига,1970. 70 с.

Бергман А. Записки недочеловека. Рига, 2005. 320 с.

Левенштейн М. На краю нигде // Книга спасения / Авт.-сост. и лит. зап. Л. Коваль. Юрмала, 1993. Ч. 1. С. 100169.

Фридман Г. Что с нами случилось: Воспоминания. Рига, 2004. 248 с.

 

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