The Jews in Siedlce
1850–1945
(Siedlce, Poland)

54°06' / 22°56'

Translation of
Żydzi w Siedlcach 1850–1945

Author: Edward Kopówka

Published in Siedlce 2009


Our sincere appreciation to Mr. Edward Kopówka
for permission to translate and place the translation on the JewishGen web site.


This is a translation of: Żydzi w Siedlcach 1850–1945
(The Jews in Siedlce 1850–1945),
Author: Edward Kopówka, Siedlce 2009 (P 364 pages).


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EDWARD KOPÓWKA


The Jews in Siedlce
1850–1945


Dedicated to Izaak Halber, of blessed memory

 

Translated from the Polish by Dobrochna Fire

Edited by Leonard Levin and Michael Halber

 


 

INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER 1.
Siedlce and the Jews through the End of the Nineteenth Century
 
CHAPTER 2.
The Social and Political Life of the Jews of Siedlce at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
 
CHAPTER 3.
The Pogrom of 1906
 
CHAPTER 4.
The Revival of Jewish Society during the Period 1915–1920
 
CHAPTER 5.
Political Aspirations of Jews during the Period 1918–1939
  1. Zionist Parties
    1. The Zionist Organization in Poland—Histadrut Haziyonit be Polonia
    2. The World Zionist Labor Party—Mifleget Avodah Zionit Hitachdut
    3. Jewish Social-Democratic Labor Party, Right Poalei Zion
    4. Jewish Social-Democratic Labor Party, Left Poalei Zion
    5. Organization of Orthodox Zionists “Mizrachi”
    6. The Pioneer Movement “Hechalutz”
  1. Parties Rejecting Emigration as a Solution to the Jewish Question and Striving for Equal Rights within the Framework of the Second Republic
    1. Union of Israel — Agudath Israel, Known as Agudah
    2. The Jewish Folk Party in Poland—Yiddishe Folks Partei in Poylen, Known as Folkists
    3. General Union of Jewish Workers in Poland—Algemener Yiddisher Arbeter Bund in Poylen, Known as Bund
    4. Participation of Jews in the Communist Party of Poland
    5. Assimilationist Movement
 
CHAPTER 6.
Schooling
  1. Religious Schooling with Hebrew and Yiddish
  2. Secular Schooling with Yiddish and Hebrew
  3. Secular Schooling with Yiddish
  4. Secular Schooling with Hebrew
  5. Jews in State Schooling with Polish as the Language of Instruction
 
CHAPTER 7.
Cultural-Educational, Welfare, and Health Organizations and Sports
  1. Cultural-Educational, Welfare, and Health Associations
    1. Libraries
    2. “Yiddishe Kunst” (Jewish Art) Literary-Musical Society
    3. “Tarbut” (Culture) Jewish Educational-Cultural Association
    4. Jewish League of People's Education [ŻLOL]
    5. Yavneh Jewish Cultural-Educational Association
    6. “Freiheit” (Freedom) Cultural-Educational Society
    7. “Kultur Liga” (League of Culture) Educational Association
    8. League of Aid to Working Palestine
    9. Hashomer Hatzair—Young Guard, Scout
    10. Trumperldor Association of Jewish Youth—Brit Trumpeldor, Beitar
    11. “Akiba” Jewish Scouting Organization—Hanoar Haivri “Akiba”
    12. “Laboro” (Work) Workers Association of Esperantists, Siedlce Branch
    13. “Morning Prayer” Workers Physical Education Association
    14. Protection of Jewish Orphans
    15. Association for the Care of Jewish Orphans
    16. Jewish Committee of the Maritime and Colonial League
    17. Jewish Circle of LOPP (League for Antiaircraft and Antigas Protection)
    18. Committee for Aid to Jewish Students—Auxilium Academicum Judaicum
    19. “Lodging House” Jewish Charitable Society
    20. Health Care Society—TOZ
    21. Jewish Tourism Society
    22. Alliance of Jewish Women—WIZO (Women's International Zionist Organization)
    23. “Jaffe” (the Joffe Family) Association of Jewish Working Women
    24. Central Jewish Committee on Emigration to America, Society (Division) in Siedlce
    25. “B'nai B'rith” (Sons of the Covenant) Union of Jewish Humanitarian Associations
  1. Athletic Clubs
 
CHAPTER 8.
Internal Self-Rule and the Press
  1. The Community Council—Kahal
  2. The Jewish Press
 
CHAPTER 9.
Self-Help Organizations
  1. Trade Unions
    1. Union of Agricultural Workers in the Food Industry in Poland, Siedlce Division
    2. Transportation Workers Trade Union, Siedlce Division
    3. Central Trade Union of the Leather and Allied Industries, Division IV in Siedlce
    4. Class Trade Union of the Food Branch
    5. Garment Industry Workers Trade Union, Siedlce Division
    6. Mutual Aid (Relief) Association of Shoemakers in Siedlce
    7. Alliance of Small Merchants
    8. Jewish Construction Workers Union
    9. Retail and Office Workers Trade Union
    10. Central Class Union of Siedlce Shoemakers
    11. Union of Merchants and Industrialists
    12. Union of Painters and Varnishers
    13. Guild of Sheet-Metal Workers, Locksmiths, Boiler Smiths, and Allied Trades
    14. Trade Union of Jewish Primary School Teachers in Siedlce
    15. Branch Union of Porters
    16. Branch Union of Butchers
    17. Regional Council of Trade Unions in Siedlce
  1. Cooperatives
    1. General Workers Cooperative
    2. Folkist Cooperative
    3. Jewish Horticultural-Agricultural Cooperative
 
CHAPTER 10.
The Holocaust
  1. Siedlce during the Nazi Occupation 1939–1944
  2. The Extermination of Siedlce Jews
  3. Labor Camps for Jews
       I—Military Provision Depot No. 6 (A.V.L.)
       II—Reckmann Construction Company
       III—Kisgrube (Gravel Pit) German Construction Inspectorate No. 8
       IV—Wolfer und Göbel Road Construction Company
       V— Bauzug [Work Train]
       VI—German Construction Inspectorate
 
CHAPTER 11.
After the War
 
CONCLUSION
 
APPENDICES
    Appendix 1. Michał Kazimierz Ogiński's Letter to Rabbi Abraham Fręklin from 1797
    Appendix 2. List of Victims of the 1906 Pogrom in Siedlce
    Appendix 3. List of the Oldest Surnames of Jewish Families in Siedlce from the Eighteenth Century
    Appendix 4. List of Droshky Drivers in the City of Siedlce as of 19 October 1919
    Appendix 5: Map of the Ghetto in Siedlce
    Appendix 6. Teachers of Jewish Nationality Connected with Siedlce Who Were Murdered or Missing during World War II
    Appendix 7. Assurance in Place of an Oath
    Appendix 8. Fritz Hoeft's Information on the Subject of Taking Photographs during the Liquidation of the Ghetto
    Appendix 9. Interview with Hubert Pfoch
    Appendix 10. The Account of Sister of the Sacred Heart Benedykta (Apolonia Kret) Written Down by Piotr Komar (Skórzec, 02.06.2008)
    Appendix 11. Agnieszka Budna “Jadzia”
    Appendix 12. Letter from the Chairman of the Union of Siedlce Jews in the United States to the County Administrator in Siedlce with Thanks for Help during the Exhumation of Jews Murdered by the Germans during World War II
    Appendix 13. Statement Concerning the Policy of Local Authorities Regarding the Protection of Landmarks and Respect for Places of National Remembrance in Siedlce
    Appendix 14. Map of the Center of the City
    Appendix 15. Anne Safran—“Wandering around Siedlce”
    Appendix 16. Stories by Bracha Kahan (Beatrice Stolovy)
    1. ”The Wench”
    2. “Candies, Chocolates, Jellies”
    3. “Great-Grandmother Matl”
    4. Skheda
    5. “A Jewish Home”
    6. “Family”
    7. “What I Remember”
    8. “My Father's Family”
    Appendix 17. Ida Jom-Tow Tenenbaum—The Worst of Times
    Appendix 18. Marian Trzebiński—Diary of a Painter
    Appendix 19. Stories
    1. Itzak Nachum Weintraub—“The Convert”
    2. Itzak Nachum Weintraub—“Treif Fish”
    3. Itzak Nachum Weintraub—“The Saintly Preacher”
    4. Alter Drojanow—“Collection of Anecdotes”
    5. Jehoshua Goldberg—“Devils”
    6. Witold Duniłowicz—“The Water Carrier”
    7. Witold Duniłowicz—“Levin's Torah”
    8. Apolinary Hartglas—“Milgram”
    9. Apolinary Hartglas—“The Persian Rug and 30 Rubles”
    Appendix 20. Marian Pietrzak “The Jewish Legion of 1920”
 
TABLES
 
TABLES OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TABLES
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  1. Sources
  2. Printed Sources
  3. Studies
  4. The Press
 
ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY COMPILED BY MICHAEL HALBER
 
INDEXES
    INDEX OF SURNAMES
    [AUTHOR'S] INDEX OF JEWISH TERMS
    EDITOR'S GLOSSARY OF TERMS
 
SUMMARY
 
PODSUMOWANIE [Summary in Polish]
 
תקציר [Summary in Hebrew]
 
קורצער הינהאלט [Summary in Yiddish]
 
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG [Summary in German]
 
РЕЗЮМЕ [Summary in Russian]
 
PHOTOGRAPHS
  1. Siedlce and the Jews prior to World War II
  2. World War II—Extermination
  3. After the War


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