Plotzk; a History of an
Ancient Jewish Community in Poland

(Poland)

52°33' / 19°42'

Translation of
Plotzk; toldot kehila atikat yomin be-Polin

Edited by E. Eisenberg

Published in Tel Aviv, 1967



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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Ada Holtzman

 

Our sincere appreciation to Yochevet Brown, president, and the Plock landsmanschaft in Israel,
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

This is a translation from: Plotzk; toldot kehila atikat yomin be-Polin
(Plotzk; a history of an ancient Jewish community in Poland),
Editors: E. Eisenberg, Tel Aviv, World Committee for the Plotzk Memorial Book, 1967 (H, Y, E, 780 pages).

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: http://yizkor.nypl.org/index.php?id= 2527


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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World Committee   Irgun Yotzey Plotzk
for the   Be-Israel
Ploth Memorial Book   (Plotzker Association in Israel)


PLOTZK

(PLOCK)


A History of an Ancient Jewish Community in POLAND

Editor:
Eliyahu Eisenberg

Vice-Chairman, Plotzker Association in Israel

“HAMENORA”
Publishing House
Tel-Aviv, 1967

Honorary President of the World Committee
for the Plotzk Memorial Book

Mr. Itzhak Grinbaum

Editorial Board

Chairman: Moshe Rubin

Members:

Itzhak Ben-Shai (Fuchs) Shlomo Greenspan
Benyamin Galewski   Itzhak Tynski

Irgun Yotzey Plotzk (Polin) Be-Israel
(Plotzker Association in Israel)

Plotzker Young Mens' Independent Association
in New York

Sociedad de Residentes de Plock
en la Argentina

Organisation de les Amis de Plock et Environs
en France

Plotzker Groups in Australia, England, Canada
and the U.S. West Coast

Drawings: Yaakov Guterman
Title-page design: H. Dayan

All Rights Reserved
Copyright © 1967 by the Plotzker Association in Israel “Hamenora”
Publishing House, 24 Zangwill Street.

Printed by “Arazi” Press Ltd.,
4 Ayelet Hashahar Street,
Tel Aviv, Israel



plo000.jpg [23 KB]


(Summaries of Hebrew and Yiddish Texts)

    Page
Foreword   5
 

History of the Jews in Plotzk Until the First World War (1237 – 1914)

History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle Ages until the 17th Century Y. Trunk 10
Foreword – Jewish trade – Legal status of Jews – Taxes – Communal (“Kehila”) Organization – Jewish patens of life – Blood libels – Jewish-Christian Relations – Prominent Kehila personalities – Non-resident Jews – Conclusion
 
The History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle of the 17th Century until World War I Y. Trunk 16
I. From the middle of the 16th century until the end of the Polish kingdom
II.The Napoleonic period 1793-1813 – Under Prussian rule (1783-1807) – Under the Dukedom of Warsaw (1807-1814)
III. A period of prosperity and revolt
IV. Second half of the 19th century – Social and health institutions – The Vaad Hakehila (Community Council) and the Rabbinate – Economic life
V. The years preceding World War I 1900-1914
 
Activities of the Plotzk Jewish Community Dr. Y. Schipper 25
The Minute-Book of the Tailors' Union Dr. E. Ringelblum 25
The Privileges of the Jews in Plock Michael Shperling H-74
R' Moshe Ben Israel Wasserzug E.E. 25
Avraham Yaacov Papierna; Teacher and Literary Critic S. Greenspan 26
Aharon ben Moshe Kahanstam (Konstam) E. Eisenberg 27
Lives of Famous Plotzk Rabbis S. Greenspan 28
R' Yehuda Leib Margoulis – R' Zysza Plotzker – R' Shmuel Ben Azriel – R' Arye Leib Zunz (Reb Leibele Charif) – R' Abraham of Ciechanow – the Plotzker “Ilui ” – R' Yissachar Dov Graubart – N. Sokolov's Rabbi – R' Eleazar Cohen - R' Azriel Arye Leib Rakowski, the fighting “mitnaged
 
Jewish Life in Plotzk in the light of Hebrew Periodicals of the Second Half of the19th Century S. Greenspan 33
Itzhak Grinbaum and Aharon Becker – pillars of Zionism in Plotzk – The pre-Zionist epoch of Nahum Sokolov – Education and cultural life – Public institutions and social work – Relations with Polish neighbors – Emigration
Nahum Sokolov's Youth F. Sokolov 36
Plock Hassidim and Nahum Sokolov Kurt Blumenfeld H-130
Fragments of Memories I. Grinbaum H-131
Beginnings of Zionism in Plotzk I. Grinbaum 36
Inauguration of the first Jewish Gymnasium Y. M. Zlotnik 37
Memories of the Past S. Rozen 37
Gerer Hassidim – The Beth Midrash – Spirit of progress – Rabbi R' Yecheskel Lipszyc – Family Kampner – “Amcha” near the “Iron Gate”
Memories of a pupil of the Russian Gymnasium Jakob Brozda H-141
10% only to the children of the Jews – In the school of the teacher Jarzombek - The problems of the Jewish pupils; the teacher of religion: A. J. Papierna
The value “Plock” in various encyclopedias   H-145
A Jewish settlement from the 11th century is discovered   H-145
Jewish Plotzk during the First World War I. Tynski 38
 

The Plotzk Jewish Community between the Two World Wars 1918-1939

Community Institutions, Social Work, Economic Life, Neighbourhood Relations

The Jewish Kehila of Plotzk (“Vaad Hakehila” – secretary memoirs) Y. Ben-Shai (Fuchs) 40
Institutions and Organizations in Plock at 1934 (from “Kalendarz-informator Mazowsza Plockiego H-208
Plock – in “Almanach Gmin Zydowskich” 1939   H-208
The Jewish Hospital on the name of Icchak Fogel A. Shmueli (Plutzer) 41
Ezrat Holim   42
The Jewish Orphanage (“Ochronka”) G. Puk 42
“Charity saves from death” (the image of a popular welfare activist) Halina Woitkowski Szlechter, source: Dina Berland H-212
Cooperative Banks and Trade Unions I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 43
Banks – The Credit bank – Other financial institutions – Professional associations – The tailors organization in Plock – The transportation workers unions – The trade unions of office workers and salesmen
The Small Traders organization J. Malonek 44
The association of artisans in Plock Jehoszua Zwirek H-220
The “Gildene” Street B. Gincberg 44
The yard of Altman on Szeroka street 10 Natan Lerman H-223
Grunim (published in “Plocker wart”, 1936) Chaim Flaks H-224
“Ort” in Plock I. Tynski 44
Anti-Semitism in Plotzk between the two World-Wars E.E. 45
The Mariavits Convent and the Jews I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 45
Who were the Mariavits? – The Mariavits and the Jews – The Mariavits and the Germans – They did not help the Jews – What happened to the Jewish property?

Education, Religious Life, Cultural Organizations, Personalities

The Jewish Gymnasium   47
Jewish Primary Education I. Ben Shai (Fuchs) 47
Shmuel Penson B. Grey (Graubart) 48
My Father, R' Shmuel Penson A. Penson 48
Jewish Education in Plotzk Prof. D. Eisenberg 48
Memories of the melamed Yehiel Meir Kravietz A. Sh. 49
The Popular Functions of the Jewish Library “Hazamir” Prof. D. Eisenberg 49
Jubilee to the Jewish library in Plock E.E. H-249
Local Theater Groups M. Magnes 49
Childhood Memories M. Zylberberg 50
The “small Beth Midrash” of Plock Israel Zylberberg Y-258
The arrival of a new rabbi to Plock   H-259
The Victim Y. Warszawski H-260
The Struggle for Restoring the Good Name of Rabbi H. Shapiro A. Hartglas 50
Nahum Sokolov and Plotzk Y. Warszawski 50
Nahum Sokolov's visit to Plotzk and Wyszogrod M. Turkow 51
Shalom Ash and Plotzk M. Zylberberg 51
My Uncle, Rabbi Y. L. Avida (“El Zet”, R' Yehuda Leib Zlotnik) Ruhama Shnir (Zlotnik) 51
Rabbi Yehuda Leib Avida (Zlotnik) Dr. Nechemia Aloni 52
Alfred Blei, The Last Chairman Meir (Michael) Koenigsberg 52
Zysze Landau Melech Rawicz 53
Memories of My Father's Home E. Eisenberg 53
“Jewish Islands” in a Christian neighborhood – The uniqueness of the Jewish gymnasium of Plock – “Hashomer Hatzair” – the oldest scouts movements in Plock – The summer camps of Hashomer Hatzair – The home of grandfather in Dobrzyn – A new social and cultural framework – The Hebrew youth movement “Akiba” in Plock – Two tragic episodes in Akiba movement; the war burst out – Our escape from home – In Gostynin; granting the nobility title for saving life – First brutalities and abuses by the Nazis – We return to Plock – To the east with a torn refugee identity card

Political Parties, Youth Movements, Zionist Funds

The first Zionist fulfillment Elisza Jecheskeli (Czrnobroda) H-297
Four friends and their spiritual world M. Rubin 55
“Agudat Zion”   55
The festivities of “L'g Baomer for the national fund M. Rubin H-303
Keren Kayemet Activities   55
“Zeirei Zion” in Plock I. Tynski 56
The Agricultural Farm of Moshe Krakowski E. E. 56
“Hachshara” Kibbutz by the name of “Borochow” F. Fliderblum 57
Hehalutz, Hehalutz Hatzair and Hapoel Y. Rosenblum 57
Getting organized – The objection of the extreme religious – “Hehalutz Hatzair” (Young Hehalutz) – The branch activities – Kibbutz Hachshara in town – The visit of the 2 messengers from Eretz Israel – The experiences of the Alyia – “Hapoel” – Training of young sportsmen – Dedication to Jewish sport
Summary of 10 years of “Poalei Zion” R. Lichtman H-320
“Mizrahi” Movement   58
“Herzlia” Association M. Rubin 59
“Poalei Zion (Left)” B. Okolica 59
The First World War – The local politic work after the War – The social-professional activity – The cultural public work – Aftermath
The “Freiheit” Movement D. Shahari 59
“Agudat Israel” in Plock and the Region L. Geliebter 60
The founding assembly – The educational activity – The members of Agudat Israel in the Community – Committee and the Municipality Council – The economic activity
The Activities of the “Bund” I. M. Oliver (Ilover) 60
Under the czarist regime – During the war years – The first years of independent Poland – The visits of the “Bund” leaders – Striving for victory – Last words
“Hashomer Hatzair” E. E. 61
The beginning of the movement as a scout Jewish movement – Founding of Hashomer Hatzair in Plock with the Hebrew Gymnasium – Changes of the ideology and the human structure – Two girls of the Plock branch fight against the Nazis
Revisionists and “Beitar”   62
“General-Zionist” Youth Movement and “Akiba” B. Galewski 62
“Akiba” in Plock (“Divrei Akiba” 14.12.1933)   H-345
From our own ideas (the ideological struggle for Zionism and Judaism) Meir Pagorek H-346
The Local Communist Party Sh. P. 63
The history of “Maccabi” in Plock M. Rubin 63
1915 – 1918 – 1923 – 1933
The Last Two Years of “Maccabi” A. Najman (Nowicki) 64
 

Plotzk-Born Jewish Painters

Nathan Korzen – the painter   H-370
Nathan Korzen Y. Aronson 65
Fishl Zylberberg (Zber) (1909-1942)   65
He will not be forgotten Harry Koren (Korzen) H-376
The exhibition of the works of F. Zylberberg   H-378
With Fiszl Zylberberg (Zber) before his tragic death Itzchak Furmansky H-380
Stenia Bender (deported to Auschwitz under name “Guta Rozenstein”, the wife of Fishl Zber
Yechiel Meir (Maks) Eljowicz, Portrait-Painter M. Rubin 66
David Tushinsky, Master of Miniatures E. E. 67
Shmuel Har-Shalom (Fridenberg) M. Rubin 68
 

Personalities, Public Persons Rabbis, Writers, Artists, Educators, Teachers, Leaders, Public Activists, Party and Other Organizations Activists, Sport Leaders etc.
Collected and Edited by Shlomo Greenspan, Moshe Rubin, Itzhak Ben Ishai (Fuchs) and rabbi Leib Geliebter

Nachum Sokolov (1860-1936)   H-391
Itzhak Grinbaum   H-393
Rabbis, dayanim (religious judges) and heads of yeshivot (religious colleges)   H-395
R' Yehuda Lajb Avida (Zlotnik) (Rabbi) – R' Adelberg Itzhak (Rabbi) – R' Auerbach Itzhak son of R' Chaim (Rabbi) – R' Auerbach Falk (Rabbi) – R' Ajdelberg Mordechai Dov (the last Rabbi of Plock) – Bzura Matatyahu (Dayan) - R' Ginzburg Abraham Chaim – Hftka Zisman (Dayan) – R' Halberstat Naftali Herc (Rabbi) – R' Szymon Zylberberg (Dayan) – R' Ziskind Aleksander H'Kohen - “R' Zisza Plocker” (Rabbi) – R' Zlotnik Yona Mordechai (Rabbi) – R' Kohen Eliezer (Rabbi) – R' Lipszyc Zeew Wolf (Rabbi) – R' Lipszyc Jecheskel (Rabbi) – R' Landau Abraham the Ciechanow Admu”r – Mendelson Mendel (head of Yeshiva ) – Mendelson Moshe son of Mendel (Dayan) – R' Mendelson Beniamin son of Mendel (Rabbi) – R' Margalit Yehuda Leib (Rabbi) – R' Menachem Nachum son of R' Yosef (Rabbi) – R' Pinchas son of R' Yehuda (Rabbi) – R' Cwi Hirsz (Rabbi) – R' Zunz Arie Lejb (R' Lejbele Harif) (Rabbi) – Rubinstein Michael (head of the small Beth Midrash Yeshiva) – R' Rubinstein Fyszel (Rabbi) – Rodabr Szmuel Zysza (head of Yeshiva) – R' Rozebstrauch Mendel (Rabbi) – R' Rakowski Azriel Arie Lejb (Rabbi) – R' Szmuel Ben Azriel (Rabbi) – R' Shapira Chaim (the Plocker Admu”r)
The Lexicon of Biographies   H-400
 

The Holocaust Period (1939-1945)

The Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi Regime Dr. J. Kermish 70
Until the deportation – Plotzk refugees in exile – Acts of resistance – Plotzk after the Holocaust
Jews of Plotzk in Exile   76
Letters of Plocker Jews from the towns of deportation   H-506
Pages in the diary Itzhak Tynski Y-526
Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi Terror D. Dabrowska 76
Testimonies   77
Lea Moszkowicz – Dina Inowroclawska – Regina Kalman – Felicja (Fela) Ravitzka - Unnamed person – Dr. Hersz Russak – R. Lichtman – Simcha Mintz
The tortures in the Forced Labor Camp Amsee (near Poznan). All prisoners of this camp were murdered. They worked there for the German Company O. Quast. Leib Geliebter H-539
Plock in the chronicle of Ludwik Landau (1909-1944) a Jewish famous economist from Tomaszow Mazowiecki   H-542
A Reminder (“Regards”) H. Elboim-Dorembus 78
Between Warsaw and Plotzk Michael Zylberberg 78
I left the Ghetto H. Mairanc-Meiri 79
I was a “Submarine” in a Nazi-Camp M. Koenigsberg 79
A Revolt in Hell, Testimony The horrors and heroism in the camp of Treblinka Marian Platkiewicz 79
H-544
Treblinka, historical review – In Plock and with the family – With the slavery labor battalions in Treblinka – The day of the revolt and revenge and its planning – Accumulation of arms and last preparations – The signal is given - Rudek Lubraniecki the hero of Treblinka – The escape from all parts of the camp - In hiding and in action – The trial of Treblinka perpetrator, the German Kurt Franc
I was a mouth of hundreds of thousands murdered victims – (Sobibor trial) Moshe Bahir (Szklarek) H-553
The testimony of Moshe Bahir (Szklarek) in the Eichman trial   H-555
State archive “The Government Counselor against Adolf Eichman. Testimonies B', pages 1045-1050
Nothing Remain… (a poem) Katriel (Kurt) Hazan H-558
To the Jews of Poland (a poem translated from Polish to Hebrew by Zvi Yashiv) Wladyslaw Broniewski H-559
Warszawa year 5601 (1941) Itzhak Bernsztein H-560
Our Plocker landsleit in Ghetto Warsaw Michael Zylberberg H-570
The first refugees – The period until the erection of the ghetto – The period of the ghetto – The contact with the deportees in the various towns – Days of the deportations – After the Holocaust
Escaped from the claws of death (Josef-Jorzek Fiszman – Makowski) Prof. Artur Ber H-573
Yizkor – the Martyrs Names (necrology)   H-575
 

Post War Efforts of Rebuilding

Survivors of the fire Alfred Blei (30.10.1945) H-606

The activities of the Plocker Survivors Committee

In liberated Plock – the remembrance assembly of March 3rd, 1946   H-608
David Lichtenstein: the first Plocker victims of the war – Talks by Mrs. Koenigsberg, Zielonka, Mr. Cichi (from Drobin), Eisenberg, Platkewicz, Margolin and Alfred Blei, chairman.
Exhumation (21.10.1946)   H-610
Summary of the Plocker Survivors Committee activities (1948) M. Tirman H-611
The dedication ceremony of the memorial monument to Plock martyrs (built by architect Benjamin Arie Leib Perlmuter)   H-612
Jewish Plotzk cannot be rebuilt I. G. Bursztyn 82
H-614
Y-619
The path of agony of the Jews of Plock – Trials of rehabilitation – The plant is not revived
I returned Home I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 83
H-629
Memories and experiences of a refugee upon return after the Holocaust – In a refugees train to Poland – The first encounter with the city, June 1946 - Trials to renew life which were destroyed – Szeroka street – The house of Maccabi – A struggle for labor – In the main streets of town – In the “Tumy” boulevard – The grand synagogue – The cemetery
Post- War Activities in Plotzk   83
A memorial meeting in liberated Plotzk (3.5.1946) – Re-burial ceremony of 25 Nazi victims – Summary of the activities by the committee of Plotzk survivors - Unveiling of the monument (23.10.1949)

Associations of Plotzk Jews All Over the World

Jews of Plotzk in Israel   85
H-643
Until the foundation of the State of Israel – The activities of the organization in the State of Israel – The book of Plock
The first immigrants (“ olim ”) from Plock in Eretz Israel Eng. Mordechai Shoshani H-648
Memories of my father home
Yaacov Tzidkoni (Rechtman) – a Folklore researcher and a collector   H-651
In Memoriam   86
Itzhak Barak (Zeligman) z”l – IDF Lieutenant Colonel – Mordechai Licht z”l – man of Ein Vered – Josef Rosenfeld z”l – fell in Gesher Haziv battle – Eliyahu Kruvi (Kapusta) z”l – Itzhak Rosenfeld z”l – Uri Kinamon z”l – Hersh Cohen z”l – among the founders of “Neve Shaanan” suburb – Yechiel Avivi (Fliderblum) z”l – words about his image – Yaakov Fishman z”l – the Halutz (pioneer) and educator
History of the Plotzker Young Mens' Association in New York H. Lipner 88
Members of the committee in 1966: Pres. – Geo. Seeman – V-Pres. – Dr. K. Bach and C. Okolica – Treas. – S. Bornstein – Fin. Secy. – H. Lipner – Rec. Secy. – J. Gomberg – Trustees – M. Weitzman, J. Bernstein, N. Fink
Shlomo Greenspan, In Memoriam Bezalel Okolica 89
Plotzk Jews in the Argentine   90
Several details about the Plockers in Argentina   Y-676
Plotzk Jews in France H. Zimmerman 90
Last Letter from Menachem Banach, 30.3.1942   Y-677
Plotzk Jews in various countries   91
Australia, England, Los Angeles, Canada
Illustrations   92
 
Lexicon of Personalities and Pubic Workers (in Hebrew)   389-445
Yizkor the Martyrs Names (necrology)   575-605
Pictures from Yizkor Book  



Coordinator Notes

The English part is not a complete translation of the Yizkor book of Plock but rather a synopsis, summary, and should be treated as such. there are 684 pages in Hebrew and Yiddish but only 96 pages in English.

I have translated and added the titles and page numbers of articles which do not appear in the English summary. I added the code “H” if article is in Hebrew, or “Y” if in Yiddish.

I have added also the sub-chapters to the various articles, which are not included in the original Table of Contents. On many occasions I have added from the Hebrew and Yiddish parts of the book also names of people mentioned in the articles, when that was possible, mainly in the Holocaust chapters.

I have also added the names of people who appear in the photographs to the captions in English which did not include these names, see pages 92-96.

I wish to thank the Plock Landsmanschaft who encouraged me and gave me and JewishGen the permission to post the Plock Yizkor book in the Internet.

It is my hope that this book will serve as commemoration to the Jewish ancient grand and holy community of Plock, exterminated by the Germans during the Holocaust.

Ada Holtzman April 18th, 2004 – Yom Hashoah , 27 Nissan, 5764



plo447.jpg [20 KB]
Drawing by Yaacov Guterman



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