Yizkor Book of the Holy Community
of Zawiercie and Environs
(Poland)

50°29' / 19°26'

Translation of
Sefer Zikaron; kedoshei Zawiercie ve-ha-seviva

Edited by Sh. Spivak

Published in Tel Aviv 1948


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Acknowledgments

Coordinator

Ruth Wilnai

 

Donated to JewishGen by Jerrold Landau in loving memory of his grandfather,
Jacob Landau, born 1896 in Zawiercie and died 1980 in Ottawa.
Also in memory of Jacob Landau's sister Frymet, who lived in Zawiercie until the war and perished
in the Holocaust along with her husband, Jakob Schwartz, and nine of their ten children.

This is a translation from: Sefer zikaron; kedoshei Zawiercie ve-ha-seviva
(Yizkor Book of the Holy Community of Zawiercie and Environs),
Ed: Sh. Spivak, Tel Aviv, Former residents of Zawiercie and Vicinity, 1948 (H, Y 570 pages)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Zawiercie


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Translated by Jerrold Landau

Note from translator: This book does not have a table of contents or an index. An interesting anomaly exists with regards to the title of the book. Although, the title on the cover of the book is “Yizkor Book for the Martyrs of Zawiercie and Environs,” the title on the title page of the book is “Yizkor Book of the Holy Community of Zawiercie and Environs.” The latter name is also being used as the official name of this project in JewishGen.
 
 
Title page, forward, and introductory notes The Organizing Committee and Editorial Board 1
Introduction (H & Y)   9
The Development of Industry in Zawiercie – The Reasons Why (Y) Sh. Spivak 13
 
HOW CAN I FORGET YOU 17
 
How Can I Forget My Native Town? (H) Pinchas Erlich 19
A City Bustling With Life (H) Nechemia Erlich 21
Leaving Home (H) Mindzia Schwartz-Jakubowicz 25
I Yearn for You (Y) Andzia Perelmuter-Spigelman (Montreal) 27
A Still Night in Zawiercie (Y) Moshe Neuman (Ramat Hakovesh) 28
 
IT ONCE WAS 29
 
History of the Zawiercie Area – A General Survey (Y) Sh. Spivak 31
Ancient History of the Region (Y)
   Old Zawiercie
   Old Żarki
   Old Kromołów
   Old Siewierz
  33
Modern History of the Region (Y)
   Zawiercie
   Żarki
   Lośnice
   Łazy
   Kromołów
   Siewierz
  36
Documents and Sources of the History of the City and the Region (Y)   39
Statistics on the Jewish Population of the Zawiercie Region in Modern Times (Y)   41
First Record of Jews in the in the Zawiercie Region (Y)
   Częstochowa
   Będzin
   The Railway Line
  42
Zawiercie in Jewish Newspapers (H)   49
 
MY ZAWIERCIE – STREETS AND LANES IN THE CITY 53
 
The Station (Y) Sh. Spivak 55
Streets of Zawiercie (Y) Israel Drezner 58
Along the Streets and Lanes of Zawiercie by Tzvi Shapiro (Y)
   The Synagogue Courtyard
   The Beis Midrash
   The Synagogue
   At the Well
   Fires
   “Pietrowa Place”
   The Club in the Apteczna
  61
 
FIRST TESTIMONIES 67
 
Memories of Zawiercie and its Jews (H)
   The Establishment of a Synagogue and the Beis Midrash
   The Synagogue and the Beis Midrash – Two Spiritual Centers
   Events of the Synagogue
   The Beis Midrash, its Worshippers, its Customs and Protocols on Sabbaths
   The Beis Midrash on Weekdays
   The Gabbaim [trustees] Closed Down the Beis Midrash for Two Weeks
   The Style of Education of Jewish Youth in Those Days
   The Influence of the Synagogue and the Beis Midrash on the Youth
   The Sanitation Situation in the City
   Healing and Remedies
   Incantations
   Folk Remedies
   Linat Tzedek
   Wonderful Superior Virtues of Zawiercie Jews
   Brotherhood and Solidarity among Zawiercie Jews
   The Dedication of a Torah Scroll
   Entertainment and Amusement
   Shtibels (small Chassidic prayer houses) and Admorim (Chassidic masters)
   The End of the Story
   Players and Jesters in the City
Alter Honigman, known as Alter Meir David Lelewers 69
From the Early Days (H)
   Alef. Men of Strength
   Beit. The Epidemic in Zawiercie
   Gimel. In Poverty and Want
   Daled. I Returned to Zawiercie
   He. The Dispute over the Rabbinate
   Vav. How I Became Self Employed
   Zayin. “The Committees”
Yitzchak Yaakov Erlich 120
My Early Years in Zawiercie (Y) Birech Blatt 133
Personalities of Zawiercie (H) Y. Markowa 135
Our City Zawiercie (H) D. Erlichman 136
My Memories of Zawiercie (H) Shimon Friedman 141
As It Was At One Time (Y) Monica Warnensko 144
The City of Zawiercie – an Industrial Center
   Social and Political Development
Zawiercie (or Zavertche) (Y)
   Beginning
   Zawiercie Becomes a City
   Before the Second World War
Itzik Roitmentch 149
Memories (H) Y. Zigelbaum 153
 
MY ZAWIERCIE – THE LANDSCAPE OF CHILDHOOD 155
 
Grandfather's Home (H)
   Grandfather and his Character
   Grandfather's Neighbors
   Michel Wishek
   His Children
   Uncle Binyamin
   Uncle Nachum
   Aunt Elka
   Uncle Hershel
   Uncle Israel
   Uncle Chaim
Shabtai Keshev (Klugman) 157
Memories from a Socially Active Home (Y)
   In Moskowicz's House
   The Felsteins
   Societal Activity
   Images of People of the City
   Leibish Meir, Israel Frenk
   Koppel Shimon Mintz
   Beadles
   Communal Workers and Artists
   Reb Shlomo Todroskes
   Cantorial Activity and Father's Choir
   Leibel Dimant
   Leibish Yoel Leber and Lewartowski
Matilda Werdiger-Spivak 170
In the Good Childhood Years (Y)
    In Shwartzbaum's House
   One Makes A Living
   The Eves of Sabbaths and Festivals
   Thursday at the Market
   Avramele's Wedding
   The Synagogue and the Study Hall
Shimon Feigenblatt 184
The Beginnings of Societal Activity and Life in Jewish Zawiercie (Y)
   The Stream of Immigration from the Small Towns
   “The Germans”
   Maskilim [members of the enlightenment movement]
   Maskilim and Zionists
   The Democratic Spirit in the Synagogue
   Socialists
   Jewish Youth Leave Zawiercie
   The Younger Generation
   “Tzeirei Zion” [Young Zion]
  190
Memories from Zawiercie (Y)
   I Was Born in Zawiercie
   The Beginning of Zawiercie
   The Eve of the Russian-Japanese War
   Wartime 1914-1918
   “Tenaim” All for a Pass (A comic-tragic event)
Yechiel Danziger 202
Socialist Struggle in Poland (Y) Shlomo Alexander Danziger 212
In the Years 1905-1906 (Y) Aaron Binyamin Lugerner (New York) 215
The First Families in Zawiercie (H)
   The Descendents of Rabbi Yeshaya Haberman
Yeshaya Landau 219
Shlomole's Childhood Years (Y) David Landau of blessed memory 221
A Journalist Visits Zawiercie (Y)
   What is Delightful Zawiercie ?
A. Litwin 228
A City is Built (Y)
   (A Story, Half Fact and Half Fiction)
   (from the book “Tzvishen Vent”, New York, 1939)
Moshe David Keshir (Kasier) 233
 
THE ENVIRONS OF ZAWIERCIE 236
 
Memories of Kromołów (Y) Tovia Fogel 236
Kromołów the Mother of Zawiercie (Y)
   The Nazi Era
Yehuda (Leibel) Dimant 241
Kromołów – A Shtetl as in Shalom Aleichem's Stories (Y)   243
The Old Town of Kromołów (Y)   245
Mrzyglod (Imishglid) (Y) Shimon Geldner 246
 
WITH MURDER, STRANGLING, AND TORTURE – FIRE AND DESTRUCTION 249
 
Poems of the Holocaust   251
Fire (Y) Shlomo Danziger 251
Walking in the Face of Destruction (H & Y) Sh. Spivak 252
My Native City (Y) Alexander Shlomo Danziger 254
Revenge David Landau of blessed memory 255
In the Shadow of Horror (H) Chaim 256
In the Whirlwind of Days and Blood (H)   257
From the Depths I Call Out to You (H) A Yiddish letter from David Ziriker to Yosef Landau, Zawiercie, 1946 266
In the Path of Destruction and Murder (Y)
   27th of August 1939
   28th of August
   Out of the Storm and into the Fire
   Back Home Again
   Warthenau
   Markstädt and Otmuth Camps
   Kotlice Starobin Concentration Camp
   The Camp for Political Prisoners in Buchenwald
   The Final Death March from Buchenwald
Israel Drezner 267
The Destruction of Zawiercie (Y) Yoel Grinkraut 286
In the Grip of Destruction (Y)
   Panic Following the First Rumors
   The Entry of the German Troops
Chaim Turner 303
A Day of Horror (Y) Yisrael Yitzchak Grinbaum 320
From Załęże to Myszków and Zawiercie (Y) Elana Freiberger-Polak 325
I Miraculously Survived the Second World War (Y) Tzvi Shapiro 329
The Hell in Kromołów (Y)
   Do Not Buy From Jews
   The Command to Turn in Valuables and Wear Yellow Bands
   In Solidarity with the Rabbi and Kromołów Jews
   The Commandant
   The First Transport to Germany
   The Store
    My Father was Freed
   A Hanging in the Market
   I Leave my Kromołów
Bronia Landau-Brott 343
Families who lived in Kromołów (Y)   350
I Will never Forget (Y) Mania Feigenblat (Brott) of Montreal 351
Chapters from a Difficult Era (Y)
   The Second Roundup in Zawiercie
   A Good Dream from a Major Aliya Activist
David Brott 354
About the Destruction of my Precious Zawiercie (Y) Itzik Roitmentsh 361
A Mrzyglod native in the Concentration Camps (Y) Shimon Geldner 369
Fellow Zawiercie Natives in the Ghetto and the Concentration Camps (Y) Dr. Y. Borenstein in Munich 376
The Last Three Days of Jewish Zawiercie (Y) Tzvi Tshebiner 383
Nazi Decrees in Zawiercie (Y) Chaya Senderovitch-Soika 388
The Righteous Man in Sodom
   The Rabbi of Zawiercie – Rabbi Elimelech Rabinowicz (H)
Yehuda Rozmiosh 392
The Tragic Destruction of the Zawiercie Jews (Y) A. Stulberg 396
 
ORGANIZATION, ALIYA, AND CULTURE 399
 
In The Organizational realm   401
The Organization of Natives of Zawiercie (H & Y) Nachum Drezner (a member of the organization committee) 401
Memories (Y) Yosef Finkel 409
A Greeting from the Zawiercie Landsmanshaft in Montreal Canada (Y) Y. Kravetz (Society president) and Y. Bozikovski (Society secretary) 411
The American Organization of Zawiercie Natives (Y) Jack Feigen (Feigenblatt) 413
 
IN THE PATHS OF ALIYA 414
 
M Father Made Aliya to the Land of Israel (Y) Tzvi Shapiro 414
The Zawiercie Bunk (Y) Shimon Feigenblatt 416
The Story of the Zawiercie Bunk (H) Yissachar Borenstein 425
 
INSTITUTIONS AND PERSONALITIES 429
 
The Orthodox Community and its Institutions in Zawiercie (H)
   Personalities and Institutions
   “Beit Hatalmud”
   The “Migdal Oz” Yeshiva
   Small Prayer Halls (Shtibelach)
   Heads of the Yeshiva and Teachers
   The Illustrious Rabbi Sh. A. Pardes and the Monthly
   Torah Journal Pardes
   The Pious Illustrious Rabbi A. Z. Fromer (the Rabbi from Koziglowy)
   Controversy over the Rabbinate
   The Results of the Elections
Yaakov Shlomo Pardes 431
Nationalist and Religious Institutions in Zawiercie and Institutions (Y)
   Yizkor Let us Remember
   An Example of Physical Destruction
   The Torah Vadaas School
   Hashomer Hadati
   The Great Destruction
Dr. (of medicine and dentistry) Y. Borenstein 443
The Torah Vaavoda Movement (Y) Tzvi Shapiro 449
Cheders (Orthodox elementary schools) and Teachers in Zawiercie (Y)   451
In the Paths of Torah and Knowledge (H)
   From the Experiences of Reb Shimele
Yeshaya Landau 452
Religious Life in our City (Y)
    The Froman Family – Eminent Prayer
   Leaders and Well Known Communal
    Leaders
    Bruria
Rivka Froman - Zegelman 458
Bygone Times in Zawiercie (H & Y) Shraga Shpeizer (Shaar Hagolan) 464
 
PERSONALITIES 466
 
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Landau of blessed memory (memories) (H) Rabbi Yehuda Avida (Zlotnik) 466
The Admor of Kromołów and His Household (H) Yeshaya Landau 468
Rabbi Shmuel Aaron Halevi Pardes of blessed memory and His Pardes Journal (H)   471
Rabbi Yeshayahu Shapiro of blessed memory (H) Sh. Spivak 473
The Illustrious Rabbi Aryeh Fromer (the Rabbi of Kozieglowy) may his blood be avenged (H) Falk-Zegelman 477
Memories of my Youth (Y) Yizi Rosenberg 478
From Pirche Agudat Yisrael to Zukunft (Y)   480
Rabbi Yoel Zwigel (H) Yeshaya Landau 481
 
EDUCATION AND CULTURE 483
 
The First Jewish Kindergarten in Zawiercie (H) Shoshana Steinberg Bar Natan of Magdiel 483
The Tarbut School (H) Chaya Efron Rothstein (founder of the Tarbut School in Zawiercie) 485
My Parents – A Pair of Teachers in Zawiercie (H) Chedva Gil (Leizerowicz) 487
Koppel Mintz of blessed memory (H) Meir Isserowski of Magdiel 490
Reb Mordechai Zeev Shechter (H) B. Sh. 491
Teachers in Zawiercie (H)
   Reb Lazer Melamed
   The Teacher Rosenberg
   Menashe Frankel
Moshe (Mietek) Neuman 492
Musical Life in Zawiercie (H)
   Fiddlers
   Pianists
   The Young “Group of Three”
   Travels with the Philharmonic and my meetings with Zawiercie Natives
Reuven-Romek Rothenstein, a member of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra 494
My Way as an Artist (Y) Harry Weinglik 500
Reb Reuven Zarmof (H)
   A Well Known Orthodox Poet at the Beginning of the Time of the Haskala
Yitzchak Yaakov Erlich (Itshe Erlich) 503
The Kultura Organization (Y) Esther Zaks 509
The Kultura Cultural Organization (Y) Nachum Drezner 512
Youth Movements (Hashomer Hatzair, Herzlia, Hashachar) (H) Yitzchak Shtinkeler 513
Herzlia, An Educational Youth Group (H) Meir Isserowski 518
Sections of Memories of Zawiercie (H) Avraham Shlomo Grinblatt 521
 
YOUTH AND SPORT 524
 
The Youth Movements in Zawiercie (H)
   Hashomer Hatzair
   Hakoach
M. Neuman 524
Pioneering and Sport Activities in Zawiercie (Y) Yosef Leib Fisher 530
Beitar in Zawiercie (H) David Brott 534
Youth Movements in Zawiercie (Y) Sala-Jakubowicz-Zilberstein 537
Sport in Zawiercie (H) Avraham Shlomo Grinblatt 542
About the Representative from the Hechalutz Center (H) Yerachmiel Zlabinski 544
 
ECONOMIC LIFE 545
 
Zawiercie Financial and Economic Institutions (Y)
   The Financial Situation of the Jews of Zawiercie
   Around the Area of Zawiercie
Sh. S. 545
Industry and Manufacturing in Zawiercie (H) Yitzchak Windman 548
 
CHAPTERS OF EVENTS 550
 
Foundations of the Reality (H)
   The Zawiercie Klezmers (H)
   The Balfour Declaration in Zawiercie (H)
   Sabbath Eve and Sabbath in Zawiercie (Y)
   Tashlich [a ceremony by the river on Rosh Hashana] (Y)
   The Mikva [ritual bath] (Y)
   Water Drawers (H)
   Charitable Institutions (H)
   Gemilat Chesed
    Linat Tzedek
Moshe (Mietek) Neuman 550
In the Company of the Assimilationists (H)
   names of assimilationists mentioned on page 561 – Broniatowski, Lewinowicz, Bernard Helman, Bagacki, Rosen
St. Vitzich 560
In a non-Hassidic Shtibel (Y) Aaron Binyamin (Yome) Lugerner 562
Yaakov Hirsch Tszebiner (Y) His grandchildren 566
Reb Shmuel Saika (H) Reb Itche Erlich 567
Shalom Granek of blessed memory (H) Y. Rosenblum 568
Avraham Dafner of blessed memory (H) Yosef Lipmen 570
Yizkor [memorial] Dedication section (47 unnumbered pages following page 570)   571
 
ADDENDA ADDED BY THE TRANSLATION PROJECT
   (not part of original book)
 
Photo captions Compiled by the translator
Necrology Distilled from an early translation of the Yizkor Dedications section. (Note: some name spellings may differ from the current version.)

 


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